0
0

Chapter 13. Autism Spectrum Disorders

Peter E. Tanguay, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623921.455877

Sections

Excerpt

In 1943, Leo Kanner, child psychiatrist and author of the first U.S. textbook on child psychiatry, published a paper in which he described 11 children "whose condition differs so markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far, that each case merits—and, I hope will eventually receive—a detailed review of its fascinating peculiarities" (Kanner 1943, p. 217). The following year, Hans Asperger described, in a German publication, a similar disorder (Asperger 1944/1991). Both reports had the word autistic in their title. Kanner's report was initially much better known in the West. Despite considerable interest, it was not until DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association 1980) was published that autism became an official and codified diagnosis. The DSM-III diagnostic criteria, which had been developed after numerous expert suggestions and field trials, were consistent with many, though not all, of Kanner's observations. Although the criteria have been adjusted through subsequent editions of DSM, the overall approach to the diagnosis of autism remains largely unchanged.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
TABLE 13–1. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder

References

American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
 
Asperger H: "Autistic psychopathology" in childhood (1944), in Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Edited by Frith U. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp 37–92
 
Autism Genome Project Consortium, Szatmari P, Paterson AD, et al: Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nat Genet 39:319–328, 2007
 
Baird G, Charman T, Baron-Cohen S, et al: A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a six-year follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:694–702, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Baranek GT: Autism during infancy: a retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. J Autism Dev Disord 29:213–224, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Baron-Cohen S, Allen J, Gillberg C: Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. Br J Psychiatry 161:839–843, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Spong A, et al: Studies of theory of mind: are intuitive physics and intuitive psychology independent? Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders 5:47–78, 2001
 
Berument SK, Rutter M, Lord C, et al: Autism Screening Questionnaire: diagnostic validity. Br J Psychiatry 175:444–451, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Beyer KS, Blasi F, Bacchelli E, et al: Mutation analysis of the coding sequence of the MECP2 gene in infantile autism. Hum Genet 111:305–309, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Bolton PF, Park RJ, Higgins JN, et al: Neuroepileptic determinants of autism spectrum disorders in tuberous sclerosis complex. Brain 125:1247–1255, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Broadstock M, Doughty C, Eggleston M: Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism 11:335–348, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Cacioppo JT, Visser PS, Pickett CL, et al: Social Neuroscience: People Thinking About Thinking People. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2006
 
Carter AS, Volkmar FR, Sparrow SS, et al: The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: supplementary norms for individuals with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 28:287–302, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E: Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children (comments). JAMA 285:3093–3099, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Constantino JN, Todd RD: Autistic traits in the general population: a twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:524–530, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Constantino JN, Przybeck T, Friesen D, et al: Reciprocal social behavior in children with and without pervasive developmental disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr 21:2–11, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Courchesne E, Carper R, Akshoomoff N: Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism (comment). JAMA 290:337–344, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Croen LA, Najjar DV, Fireman B, et al: Maternal and paternal age and risk of autism spectrum disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:334–340, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Curatolo P, Porfirio MC, Manzi B, et al: Autism in tuberous sclerosis. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 8:327–332, 2004
[PubMed]
 
DiCicco-Bloom E, Lord C, Zwaigenbaum L, et al: The developmental neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder. J Neurosci 26:6987–6906, 2006
 
Farzin F, Perry H, Hessl D, et al: Autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boys with fragile X permutation. J Dev Behav Pediatr 27(suppl):S137–S144, 2006
 
Feinstein C, Reiss AL: Autism: the point of view from fragile X studies. J Autism Dev Disord 28:393–405, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Fombonne E: Prevalence of childhood disintegrative disorder. Autism 6:149–157, 2002
 
Fombonne E, Du MC, Cans C, et al: Autism and associated medical disorders in a French epidemiological survey. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:1561–1569, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Greenspan SI, Wieder S: The Child With Special Needs. New York, Pereus Books, 1998
 
Gutierrez GC, Smalley SL, Tanguay PE: Autism in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Autism Dev Disord 28:97–103, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Gutstein SE, Burgess AF, Montfort K: Evaluation of the Relationship Development Intervention Program. Autism 11:397–411, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Harris SL, Handleman JS, Gordon R, et al: Changes in cognitive and language functioning of preschool children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 21:281–290, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Heller T: Über dementia infantalis (1930), in Modern Perspectives in International Child Psychiatry. Edited by Howells JG. Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd, 1969
 
Hendry CN: Childhood disintegrative disorder: should it be considered a distinct diagnosis? Clin Psychol Rev 20:77–90, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Hoekstra RA, Bartels M, Verweij CJ, et al: Heritability of autistic traits in the general population. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:372–377, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Honda H, Shimizu Y, Misumi K, et al: Cumulative incidence and prevalence of childhood autism in children in Japan (comments). Br J Psychiatry 169:228–235, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Huppke P, Maier EM, Warnke A, et al: Very mild cases of Rett syndrome with skewed X inactivation. J Med Genet 43:814–816, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Kanner L: Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child 2:217–250, 1943
 
Kasari C, Sigman M, Mundy P, et al: Affective sharing in the context of joint attention interactions of normal, autistic, and mentally retarded children. J Autism Dev Disord 20:87–100, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Klin A, Jones W, Schultz R, et al: Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:809–816, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Koegel RL, Koegel LK, McNerney EK: Pivotal areas in intervention for autism. J Clin Child Psychol 30:19–32, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Krug DA, Arick JR, Almond PG: Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 21:221–229, 1980
[PubMed]
 
Landau WM, Kleffner FR: Syndrome of acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder. Neurology 7:523–530, 1957
[PubMed]
 
Lauritsen M, Ewald H: The genetics of autism. Acta Psychiatr Scand 103:411–427, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Loesch DZ, Bui QM, Dissanayake C: Molecular and cognitive predictors of the continuum of autistic behaviours in fragile X. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31:315–326, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A: Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 24:659–685, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, et al: The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 30:205–223, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Lotter V: Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children, 1: prevalence. Soc Psychiatry 1:124–137, 1966
 
Macintosh KE, Dissanayake C: Annotation: the similarities and differences between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder: a review of the empirical evidence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45:421–434, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Madsen KM, Vestergard M: MMR vaccination and autism. Drug Saf 27:831–840, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Mayes SD, Calhoun SL, Crites DI: Does DSM-IV Asperger's disorder exist? J Abnorm Child Psychol 29:263–271, 2001
[PubMed]
 
McDougle CJ, Kresch LE, Goodman WK, et al: A case-controlled study of repetitive thoughts and behavior in adults with autistic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 152:772–777, 1995
[PubMed]
 
McDougle CJ, Scahill L, Aman MG, et al: Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: results from the study by the autism network of the research units on pediatric psychopharmacology (comment). Am J Psychiatry 162:1142–1148, 2005
[PubMed]
 
McEachin JJ, Smith T, Lovaas OI: Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. Am J Ment Retard 97:359–372, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Mouridsen SE: The Landau-Kleffner syndrome: a review. Eur J Child Adolesc Psychiatry 4:223–228, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Mundy P: Joint attention and social-emotional approach behavior in children with autism. Dev Psychopathol 7:63–82, 1995
 
Mundy P, Crowson M: Joint attention and early social communication: implications for research on intervention with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 27:653–676, 1997
[PubMed]
 
National Academy of Sciences: Educating Children With Autism. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 2001
 
Offit PA: Autism's False Prophets. New York, Columbia University Press, 2008
 
Osterling J, Dawson G: Early recognition of children with autism: a study of first birthday home videotapes. J Autism Dev Disord 24:247–257, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Pennington BF, Ozonoff S: Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:51–87, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Pierce K, Muller RA, Ambrose J, et al: Face processing occurs outside the fusiform "face area" in autism: evidence from functional MRI. Brain 124:2059–2073, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Posserud MB, Lundervold AJ, Gillberg C: Autistic features in a total population of 7–9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire). J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:167–175, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Reichenberg A, Gross R, Weiser M, et al: Advancing paternal age and autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:1026–1032, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Risi S, Lord C, Gotham K, et al: Combining information from multiple sources in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1094–1103, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Robins DL, Fein D, Barton ML, et al: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: an initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (comments). J Autism Dev Disord 31:131–144, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Rogers SJ, Wehner DE, Hagerman R: The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: symptom of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr 22:409–417, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Russell AJ, Mataix-Cols D, Anson M, et al: Obsessions and compulsions in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Br J Psychiatry 186:525–528, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Rutter M: Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning. Acta Paediatr 94:2–15, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Schopler E, Reichler R, Renner BR: The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Los Angeles, CA, Western Psychological Services, 1988
 
Schultz RT, Grelotti DJ, Klin A, et al: The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: implications for the pathobiology of autism. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358:415–427, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Sigman M: The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1997: change and continuity in the development of children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:817–827, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Sigman M, Ruskin E, Arbeile S, et al: Continuity and change in the social competence of children with autism, Down syndrome, and developmental delays (comments). J Child Psychol Psychiatry 64:1–114, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, et al: Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:921–928, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Skuse D, Warrington R, Bishop D, et al: The Developmental Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3di): a novel computerized assessment for autism spectrum disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:548–558, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Towbin KE, Dykens EM, Pearson GS, et al: Conceptualizing "borderline syndrome of childhood" and "childhood schizophrenia" as a developmental disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:775–782, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Trevarthen C, Aitken KJ: Infant intersubjectivity: research, theory, and clinical applications. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:3–48, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Tuchman R: Autism. Neurol Clin 21:915–932, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Van der Gaag RJ, Buitelaar J, Van den Ban E, et al: A controlled multivariate chart review of multiple complex developmental disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1096–1106, 1995
 
Volkmar FR, Cohen DJ: Disintegrative disorder or "late onset" autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 30:717–724, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Volkmar FR, Carter A, Sparrow SS, et al: Quantifying social development in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:627–632, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, et al: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, nonspecific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children (comments). Lancet 351:637–641, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Wassink TH, Piven J, Patil SR: Chromosomal abnormalities in a clinic sample of individuals with autistic disorder. Psychiatr Genet 11:57–63, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Weiss LA, Shen Y, Korn JM, et al: Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autism (comment). N Engl J Med 358:667–675, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Wiznitzer M: Autism and tuberous sclerosis. J Child Neurol 19:675–679, 2004
[PubMed]
 
World Health Organization: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1992
 
Yeargin-Allsopp M, Rice C, Karapurkar T, et al: Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area (comment). JAMA 289:49–55, 2003
[PubMed]
 
+

CME Activity

Add a subscription to complete this activity and earn CME credit.
Sample questions:
1.
In which of the following DSM editions did autism become an official and codified diagnosis?
2.
A DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) diagnosis of autism requires all of the following except
3.
Evaluation instruments designed for autism include all of the following except
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 1.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 2.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 3.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 4.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
Autistic empathy toward autistic others. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2014;():.doi:10.1093/scan/nsu126.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation