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Chapter 20. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Specific Phobia, Panic Disorder, Social Phobia, and Selective Mutism

Sucheta D. Connolly, M.D.; Liza M. Suárez, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623921.459191

Sections

Excerpt

When providing care to anxious youth, clinicians must distinguish normal, transient, developmentally appropriate worries and fears, as well as responses to the stressors of daily life, from anxiety disorders. Worries and fears are distinct concepts: worry involves anxious apprehension and thoughts focused on the possibility of negative future events, while fear is related to the response to threat or danger that is perceived as actual or impending. Occasional worry is normative in children (Muris et al. 1998). The fears reported by children tend to decline with increasing age and change over time from immediate and tangible concerns to anticipatory and less tangible ones, whereas the content and complexity of worries increase with age and cognitive ability (Craske 1997).

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TABLE 20–1. Generalized anxiety disorder: diagnostic criteria and additional features
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TABLE 20–2. Specific phobia: diagnostic criteria and additional features
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TABLE 20–3. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for panic attack
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TABLE 20–4. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for agoraphobia
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TABLE 20–5. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for panic disorder without agoraphobia
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TABLE 20–6. Panic disorder with agoraphobia: diagnostic criteria and additional features
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TABLE 20–7. Social phobia: diagnostic criteria and additional features
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TABLE 20–8. Selective mutism: diagnostic criteria and additional features
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TABLE 20–9. Prevalence, course, and prognosis for specific anxiety disorders
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TABLE 20–10. Common biological and environmental influences on the development of childhood anxiety
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TABLE 20–11. Differential diagnosis of psychiatric and physical conditions that may manifest with symptoms similar to those of anxiety disorders
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TABLE 20–12. Placebo-controlled pharmacological treatment studiesa

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