0
0

Chapter 36. Treatment of Children and Adolescents

Glen C. Crawford, M.D.; Stephen J. Cozza, M.D.; Mina K. Dulcan, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623402.314214

Sections

Excerpt

This chapter provides an overview of and an orientation to the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents. Treatment modalities as they apply to adults are covered in the other chapters in Part III of this textbook. In this chapter we focus on aspects of treatment that are different for children and adolescents than for adults. Childhood psychopathology and the treatment methods used for each disorder are discussed elsewhere in this volume (see Chapter 21, "Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence," by Ursano et al.). Throughout this chapter, the terms child and children refer to children of all ages, to include adolescents, unless otherwise stated.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–1. Practice parameters published by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP)
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–2. Useful child mental health Web sites
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–3. Some clinically useful symptom rating scales in child and adolescent psychiatry
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–4. Therapeutic effects of stimulant medications in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder responders
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–5. Clinical use of stimulant medications in pediatric patients
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–6. Side effects of stimulant medications
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–7. Clinical use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in pediatric patients
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–8. Clinical use of tricyclic antidepressants in pediatric patients
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–9. Clinical use of mood stabilizers in pediatric patients
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–10. Clinical use of second-generation antipsychotics in pediatric patients
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–11. Varieties of psychotherapy
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–12. Family tasks
Table Reference Number
TABLE 36–13. Models of family therapy
Table Reference Number

As in adults, treatment of pediatric psychiatric patients requires expertise in psychiatric evaluation and case formulation, effective use of complex treatment strategies, and a respect for the principles of informed consent and confidentiality.

An understanding of human development is key to the successful treatment of pediatric psychiatric patients, to include an appreciation of the differences between youngsters and adults as well as the developmental differences between children of all ages.

Ideally, treatments identified specifically for children and adolescents should reflect evidence-based practices. However, many have developed by applying known effective adult treatments to the pediatric population.

Pediatric psychopharmacology research remains limited despite escalations in the use of psychiatric medications in children. Caution should be exercised to prescribe medications in a safe and monitored fashion.

Decisions regarding the use of psychoactive medications in children, as in adults, are best supported through double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trials and through the collection of longitudinal data regarding medication safety. Clinicians should avoid the routine use of medication in youngsters that is based solely on case report or uncontrolled drug trials.

Parents should be carefully informed of the presence or absence of scientific evidence supporting the use of a specific medication in a child, as well as that medication's possible side effects and adverse effects.

Psychotherapy remains a mainstay in the effective practice of child and adolescent psychiatry and may be used solely or in combination with other treatments, depending on a patient's treatment needs.

Further studies are required to demonstrate which types of psychotherapy are most effective for which child psychiatric diagnoses. Such efficacy studies remain methodologically challenging.

Although each psychotherapy is based on its own theoretical constructs and purported therapeutic principles, all psychotherapies tend to rely on several similar precepts: the importance of the relationship with the therapist, an emphasis on hopefulness, the use of therapist attention and suggestion, and the expectation of change in one or more realms—psychological makeup, cognition, behavior, sense of self, or emotional experience.

References

Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Psychopharmacol Bull 24:781–783, 1988
 
Achenbach TM: Manual for the Teacher's Report Form and 1991 Profile. Burlington, University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 1991
 
Adams PL: A Primer of Child Psychotherapy, 2nd Edition. Boston, MA, Little, Brown, 1982
 
Akhondzadeh S, Tavakolian R, Davari-Ashitani R, et al: Selegiline in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 27:841–845, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Alexander JF: An integrative model for treating the adolescent who is delinquent/acting out, in Empowering Families, Helping Adolescents: Family-Centered Treatment of Adolescents With Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Problems. Edited by Snyder W, Oooms T. Rockville, MD, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992, pp 101–110
 
Aman MG, De Smedt G, Derivan A, et al: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence. Am J Psychiatry 159:1337–1346, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Aman MG, Buican B, Arnold LE: Methylphenidate treatment in children with borderline IQ and mental retardation: analysis of three aggregated studies. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:29–40, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Aman MG, Arnold LE, Ramadan Y, et al (Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network): Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:1266–1274, 2005
 
Ambrosini PJ: A review of pharmacotherapy of major depression in children and adolescents. Psychiatr Serv 51:627–633, 2000
[PubMed]
 
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41 (2 suppl):26S–49S, 2002
 
Anderson CM, Hogarty GE, Reiss DJ: Family treatment of adult schizophrenic patients: a psycho-educational approach. Schizophr Bull 6:490–505, 1980
[PubMed]
 
Anderson GM, Cook EH: Pharmacogenetics: promise and potential in child and adolescent psychiatry. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 9:23–42, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Arnold LE, Aman MG, Cook AM, et al: Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1196–1205, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Azrin NH, Sneed TJ, Foxx RM: Dry-bed training: rapid elimination of childhood enuresis. Behav Res Ther 12:147–156, 1974
[PubMed]
 
Barkley RA: Defiant Children: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Parent Training, 2nd Edition. New York, Guilford, 1997
 
Barnett MS: Ziprasidone monotherapy in pediatric bipolar disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:471–477, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Barrickman LL, Perry PJ, Allen AJ, et al: Bupropion versus methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:649–657, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Bastiaens L: Knowledge, expectations and attitudes of hospitalized children and adolescents in psychopharmacological treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 3:157–171, 1992
 
Bastiaens L: Compliance with pharmacotherapy in adolescents: effects of patients' and parents' knowledge and attitudes toward treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 5:39–48, 1995
 
Bernstein GA, Borchardt CM, Perwien AR: Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1110–1119, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Bernstein GA, Borchardt CM, Perwien AR, et al: Imipramine plus cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of school refusal. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:276–283, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Biederman J: Clonazepam in the treatment of prepubertal children with panic-like symptoms. J Clin Psychiatry 48 (suppl):38–41, 1987
 
Biederman J, Boellner SW, Childress A, et al: Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and mixed amphetamine salts extended-release in children with ADHD: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover analog classroom study. Biol Psychiatry 62:970–976, 2007a
[PubMed]
 
Biederman J, Krishnan S, Zhang Y, et al: Efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (NRP-104) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose, parallel-group study. Clin Ther 29:450–463, 2007b
[PubMed]
 
Biederman J, Quinn D, Weiss M, et al: Efficacy and safety of Ritalin LA, a new, once daily, extended-release dosage form of methylphenidate, in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Paediatr Drugs 5:833–841, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Biederman J, Mick E, Hammerness P, et al: Open-label, 8-week trial of olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder in preschool-age children. Biol Psychiatry 58:589–594, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Birmaher B, Greenhill LL, Cooper TB, et al: Sustained release methylphenidate: pharmacokinetic studies in ADHD males. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28:768–772, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Birmaher B, Axelson DA, Monk K, et al: Fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:415–423, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Black B, Uhde TW: Treatment of elective mutism with fluoxetine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:1000–1006, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Blair J, Scahill L, State M, et al: Electrocardiographic changes in children and adolescents treated with ziprasidone: a prospective study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:73–79, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Blechman EA: Toward comprehensive behavioral family intervention: an algorithm for matching families and interventions. Behav Modif 5:221–236, 1981
 
Borkovec TD, Miranda J: Between-group psychotherapy outcome research and basic science. Psychotherapy and Rehabilitation Research 5:14–20, 1996
 
Bradbury MG, Meadow SR: Combined treatment with enuresis alarm and desmopressin for nocturnal enuresis. Acta Paediatr 84:1014–1018, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Brent DA, Birmaher B: British warnings on SSRIs questioned. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:379–380, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Broderick-Cantwell JJ: Accidental clonidine patch overdose in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:95–98, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Brown RT, Sexson SB: Effects of methylphenidate on cardiovascular responses in attention deficit hyperactivity disordered adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 10:179–183, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Buitelaar JK, van der Gaag RJ, van der Hoeven J: Buspirone in the management of anxiety and irritability in children with pervasive developmental disorders: results of an open-label study. J Clin Psychiatry 59:56–59, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Butler RJ, Gasson SL: Enuresis alarm treatment. Scand J Urol Nephrol 39:349–357, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Butler RJ, Holland P, Robinson J: Examination of the structured withdrawal program to prevent relapse of nocturnal enuresis. J Urol 166:2463–2466, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Caballero J, Nahata MC: Atomoxetine hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clin Ther 25:3065–3083, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Campbell M, Green WH, Deutsch SI: Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage, 1985
 
Campbell M, Silva RR, Kafantaris V, et al: Predictors of side effects associated with lithium administration in children. Psychopharmacol Bull 27:373–380, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Carandang CG, Maxwell DJ, Robbins DR, et al: Lamotrigine in adolescent mood disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:750, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Carlson GA, Dunn D, Kelsey D, et al: A pilot study for augmenting atomoxetine with methylphenidate: safety of concomitant therapy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 1(1):10, 2007. Available at: http://www.capmh.com/content/1/1/10. Accessed October 9, 2007.
 
Carter E, McGoldrick M (eds): The Family Life Cycle: A Framework for Family Therapy. New York, Gardner, 1980
 
Chang K, Saxena K, Howe M: An open-label study of lamotrigine adjunct or monotherapy for the treatment of adolescents with bipolar depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:298–304, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Charach A, Ickowicz A, Schachar R: Stimulant treatment over five years: adherence, effectiveness, and adverse effects. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:559–567, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Cheng-Shannon J, McGough J, Pataki C, et al: Second-generation antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:372–394, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Cherland E, Fitzpatrick R: Psychotic side effects of psychostimulants: a 5-year review. Can J Psychiatry 44:811–813, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Chungh DS, Kim BN, Cho SC: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome due to three atypical antipsychotics in a child. J Psychopharmacol 19:422–425, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Clein PD, Riddle MA: Pharmacokinetics in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 4:59–75, 1995
 
Coffey BJ: Anxiolytics for children and adolescents: traditional and new drugs. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:57–83, 1990
 
Coffey BJ: Ethical issues in child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 4:793–807, 1995
 
Coffey BJ, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ: Pharmacokinetics of benzodiazepines and psychostimulants in children. J Clin Psychopharmacol 3:217–225, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Knudsen K: Treating sexually abused children: 1 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse Negl 29:135–145, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Compton SN, March JS, Brent D, et al: Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents: an evidence-based medicine review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:930–959, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Conners CK, Casat CD, Gualtieri CT, et al: Bupropion hydrochloride in attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1314–1321, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Conners C, Sitarenios G, Parker JD, et al: The revised Conners' Parents Rating Scale (CPRS-R): factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26:257–268, 1998a
 
Conners C, Sitarenios G, Parker JD, et al: Revision and restandardization of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS-R): factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26:279–291, 1998b
 
Connor DF: Beta blockers for aggression: a review of the pediatric experience. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 3:99–114, 1993
 
Connor DF: Preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review of prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, and stimulant treatment. J Dev Behav Pediatr 23 (1 suppl):S1–S9, 2002
 
Connor DF, Ozbayrak KR, Benjamin S, et al: A pilot study of nadolol for overt aggression in developmentally delayed individuals. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:826–834, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Connor DF, Fletcher KE, Swanson JM: A meta-analysis of clonidine for symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1551–1559, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Connor DF, Barkley RA, Davis HT: A pilot study of methylphenidate, clonidine, or the combination in ADHD comorbid with aggressive oppositional defiant or conduct disorder. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 39:15–25, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Cook EH, Wagner KD, March JS, et al: Long-term sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1175–1181, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU: Metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents: a different story? J Clin Psychiatry 66:1331–1332, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU, Penzner JB, Parikh UH, et al: Recognizing and monitoring adverse events of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 15:177–206, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Corson AH, Barkenbus JE, Posey DJ, et al: A retrospective analysis of quetiapine in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 65:1531–1536, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Cozza KL, Armstrong SC, Oesterheld JR: Concise Guide to Drug Interaction Principles for Medical Practice: Cytochrome P450s, UGTs, P-Glycoproteins. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2003
 
Cueva JE, Overall JE, Small AM, et al: Carbamazepine in aggressive children with conduct disorder: a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:480–490, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Davidson B, Quinn WH, Josephson AM: Assessment of the family: systemic and developmental perspectives. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 10:415–429, 2001
[PubMed]
 
De Haan E, Hoogduin KA, Buitelaar JK, et al: Behavior therapy versus clomipramine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:1022–1029, 1998
 
DelBello MP, Schwiers ML, Rosenberg HL, et al: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine as adjunctive treatment for adolescent mania. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1216–1223, 2002
[PubMed]
 
DelBello MP, Findling RL, Kushner S, et al: A pilot controlled trial of topiramate for mania in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:539–547, 2005
[PubMed]
 
DelBello MP, Kowatch RA, Adler CM, et al: A double-blind randomized pilot study comparing quetiapine and divalproex for adolescent mania. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:305–313, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Deas D, May K, Randall C, et al: Naltrexone treatment of adolescent alcoholics: an open-label pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15:723–728, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Dion Y, Annable L, Sandor P, et al: Risperidone in the treatment of Tourette syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:31–39, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Donenberg GR: Reconsidering "Between-Group Psychotherapy Outcome Research and Basic Science": applications to child and adolescent psychotherapy outcome research. J Clin Psychol 5:181–190, 1999
 
Duff G (2003a): Safety of Seroxat (paroxetine) in children and adolescents under 18 years—contraindication in the treatment of depressive illness. June 10, 2003. Available at: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/pl-p/documents/drugsafetymessage/con019507.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2006.
 
Duff G (2003b): Safety of venlafaxine in children and adolescents under 18 years in the treatment of depressive illness. September 19, 2003. Available at: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/pl-p/documents/drugsafetymessage/con019503.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2006.
 
Duff G (2003c): Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors—use in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. December 10, 2003. Available at: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/pl-p/documents/drugsafetymessage/con019492.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2006.
 
Dulcan MK: Brief psychotherapy with children and their families: the state of the art. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 23:544–551, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Dulcan MK (ed): Helping Parents, Youth, and Teachers Understand Medications for Behavioral and Emotional Problems: A Resource Book of Medication Information Handouts, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2006
 
Dulcan MK, Piercy PA: A model for teaching and evaluating brief psychotherapy with children and their families. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 16:689–700, 1985
 
Dulcan MK, Martini DR, Lake M: Concise Guide to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2003
 
Dummit ES, Klein RG, Tancer NK, et al: Fluoxetine treatment of children with selective mutism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:615–621, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Elia J, Borcherding BG, Rapoport JL, et al: Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine treatments of hyperactivity: are there true nonresponders? Psychiatry Res 36:141–155, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Emery G, Bedrosian R, Garber J: Cognitive therapy with depressed children and adolescents, in Affective Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence: An Update. Edited by Cantwell DP, Carlson GA. New York, Spectrum, 1983, pp 445–471
 
Emslie GJ, Heiligenstein JH, Wagner KD, et al: Fluoxetine for acute treatment of depression in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1205–1215, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Emslie GJ, Heiligenstein JH, Hoog SL, et al: Fluoxetine treatment for prevention of relapse of depression in children and adolescents: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:1397–1405, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Emslie GJ, Wagner KD, Kutcher S, et al: Paroxetine treatment in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:709–719, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Emslie GJ, Findling RL, Yeung PP, et al: Venlafaxine ER for the treatment of pediatric subjects with depression: results of two placebo-controlled trials. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:479–488, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Faigel HC: The effect of beta blockade on stress-induced cognitive dysfunction in adolescents. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 30:441–445, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T: Propranolol treatment for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder, acute type. Am J Dis Child 142:1244–1247, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Feigin A, Kurlan R, McDermott MP, et al: A controlled trial of deprenyl in children with Tourette's syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurology 46:965–968, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Feingold BE. Why Your Child Is Hyperactive. New York, Random House, 1975
 
Feldman HM, Kolmen BK, Gonzaga AM: Naltrexone and communication skills in young children with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:587–593, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Findling RL, McNamara NK, Branicky LA, et al: A double-blind pilot study of risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:509–516, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Findling RL, Blumer JL, Kauffman R, et al: Aripiprazole in pediatric conduct disorder: a pilot study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13 (suppl 4):S335, 2003a
 
Findling RL, Kusumakar V, Daneman D, et al: Prolactin levels during long-term risperidone treatment in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 64:1362–1369, 2003b
 
Findling RL, McNamara NK, Gracious BL, et al: Combination lithium and divalproex sodium in pediatric bipolarity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:895–901, 2003c
 
Findling RL, Aman MG, Eerdekens M, et al: Long-term, open-label study of risperidone in children with severe disruptive behaviors and below-average IQ. Am J Psychiatry 161:677–684, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Findling RL, McNamara NK, Youngstron EA, et al: Double-blind 18-month trial of lithium versus divalproex maintenance treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:409–417, 2005a
 
Findling RL, Steiner H, Weller EB: Use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 66 (suppl 7): 29–40, 2005b
 
Findling RL, Reed MD, O'Riordan MA, et al: A 26-week open-label study of quetiapine in children with conduct disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:1–9, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Fleck S: A general systems approach to severe family pathology. Am J Psychiatry 133:669–673, 1976
[PubMed]
 
Forehand R, Long N: Parenting the Strong-Willed Child: The Clinically Proven Five-Week Program for Parents of Two- to Six-Year-Olds, Revised and Updated Edition. New York, Contemporary Books, 2002
 
Gadow KD: Effects of stimulant drugs on academic performance in hyperactive and learning disabled children. J Learn Disabil 16:290–299, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Gadow KD: Pediatric psychopharmacology: a review of recent research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 33:153–195, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Gaffney GR, Perry PJ, Lund BC, et al: Risperidone versus clonidine in the treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:330–336, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Gardner RA: Helping children cooperate in therapy, in Basic Handbook of Child Psychiatry, Vol 3: Therapeutic Interventions. Edited by Harrison SI. New York, Basic Books, 1979, pp 414–433
 
Garland EJ, Baerg EA: Amotivational syndrome associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11:181–186, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Geller B, Cooper TB, Zimerman B, et al: Lithium for prepubertal depressed children with family history predictors of future bipolarity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord 51:165–175, 1998a
 
Geller B, Coper TB, Sun K, et al: Double-blind and placebo-controlled study of lithium for adolescent bipolar disorders with secondary substance dependency. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:171–178, 1998b
 
Geller B, Reising D, Leonard HL, et al: Critical review of tricyclic antidepressant use in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:513–516, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Geller DA, Biederman J, Steward SE, et al: Which SSRI? A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy trials in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 160:1919–1928, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Genton P, Bauer J, Duncan S, et al: On the association between valproate and polycystic ovary syndrome. Epilepsia 42:305–310, 2001
 
Gepertz S, Nevéus T: Imipramine for therapy resistant enuresis: a retrospective evaluation. J Urol 171:2607–2610, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Ghaziuddin N, Kutcher SP, Knapp P, et al: Practice parameter for use of electroconvulsive therapy with adolescents. Work Group on Quality Issues, AACAP. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:1521–1539, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Gibbons RD, Hur K, Bhaumik DK, et al: The relationship between antidepressant medication use and rate of suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:165–172, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Gittelman R, Klein DF, Feingold I: Children with reading disorders, II: effects of methylphenidate in combination with reading remediation. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 24:193–212, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Glassman AH, Bigger JT: Antipsychotic drugs: prolonged QTc interval, torsade de pointes, and sudden death. Am J Psychiatry 158:1774–1782, 2001
[PubMed]
 
GlaxoSmithKline: U.S. product labeling for Lamictal (lamotrigine). August 2005. Available at: http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_lamictal.pdf. Accessed June 3, 2006.
 
Goldbeck L, Schmid K: Effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training on children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1046–1054, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Good CR, Feaster CS, Krecko VF: Tolerability of oral loading of divalproex sodium in child psychiatry inpatients. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11:53–57, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Gordon CT, State RC, Nelson JE, et al: A double-blind comparison of clomipramine, desipramine, and placebo in the treatment of autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:441–447, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Graae F, Milner J, Rizzotto L, et al: Clonazepam in childhood anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 333:372–376, 1994
 
Greenhill LL: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 4:123–168, 1995
 
Greenhill LL, Findling RL, Swanson JM: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modified-release methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics [serial online] 109:e39, 2002. Available at: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/109/3/e39. Accessed January 16, 2006.
 
Greenhill LL, Kollins S, Abikoff H, et al: Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1284–1293, 2006a
 
Greenhill LL, Muniz R, Ball RR, et al: Efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate extended-release capsules in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:817–823, 2006b
 
Haapasalo-Pesu KM, Vuola T, Lahelma L, et al: Mirtazapine in the treatment of adolescents with major depression: an open-label, multicenter pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:175–184, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Hagerman RJ, Murphy MA, Wittenberg MD: A controlled trial of stimulant medication in children with the fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet 30:377–392, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Handen BL, Hardan AY: Open label, prospective trial of olanzapine in adolescents with subaverage intelligence and disruptive behavior disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:928–935, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Handen BL, Feldman HM, Jurier A, et al: Efficacy of methylphenidate among preschool children with developmental disabilities and ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:944–951, 1999
 
Hardan AY, Jou RJ, Handen BL: Retrospective study of quetiapine in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 35:387–391, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Harley JP: Dietary treatment of behavioral disorders. Advances in Behavioral Pediatrics 1:129–151, 1980
 
Harper G: Focal inpatient treatment planning. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28:31–37, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Hazaray E, Ehret J, Posey DJ, et al: Intramuscular ziprasidone for acute agitation in adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:464–470, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Hazell PL, Stuart JE: A randomized controlled trial of clonidine added to psychostimulant medication for hyperactive and aggressive children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:886–894, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Health Canada (2005a): Health Canada suspends the market authorization of Adderall XR, a drug prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. February 9, 2005. Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/2005/2005_01_e.html. Accessed June 3, 2006.
 
Health Canada (2005b): Health Canada allows Adderall XR back on the Canadian Market. August 24, 2005. Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/nr-cp/2005/2005_92_e.html. Accessed June 3, 2006.
 
Henggeler SW, Borduin CM: Family Therapy and Beyond: A Multisystemic Approach to Treating the Behavior Problems of Children and Adolescents. Belmont, CA, Brooks/Cole, 1990
 
Henggeler SW, Schoenwald SK, Borduin CM, et al: Multisystemic Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents. New York, Guilford, 1998
 
Herskowitz J: Developmental neurotoxicology, in Psychiatric Pharmacosciences of Children and Adolescents. Edited by Popper C. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1987, pp 81–123
 
Hjalmas KI, Hanson E, Hellstrom AL, et al: Long-term treatment with desmopressin in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: an open multicentre study. Swedish Enuresis Trial Group (SWEET). Br J Urol 82:704–709, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Hjalmas K, Arnold T, Bower W, et al: Nocturnal enuresis: an international evidence based management strategy. J Urol 171:2545–2561, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Hoag MJ, Burlingame GM: Evaluating the effectiveness of child and adolescent group treatment: a meta-analytic review. J Clin Child Psychol 26:234–246, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Hollander E, Wasserman S, Swanson EN, et al: A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of olanzapine in childhood/adolescent pervasive developmental disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16:541–548, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Horrigan JP, Barnhill LJ: Guanfacine and secondary mania in children. J Affect Disord 54:309–314, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Houts AC: Behavioural treatment for enuresis. Scand J Urol Nephrol 173 (suppl):83–86, 1995
 
Hughes CW, Emslie GJ, Crimson ML, et al: Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: update from Texas consensus conference panel on medication treatment of childhood major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:667–686, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Hunt RD, Capper S, O'Connell P: Clonidine in child and adolescent psychiatry. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:87–102, 1990
 
Hunt RD, Lau S, Ryu J: Alternative therapies for ADHD, in Ritalin: Theory and Patient Management. Edited by Greenhill LL, Osman BB. New York, Mary Ann Liebert, 1991, pp 75–95
 
Isojarvi JI, Laatikainen TJ, Pakarinen AJ, et al: Polycystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism in women taking valproate for epilepsy. N Engl J Med 329:1383–1388, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Janknegt RA, Zweers HMM, Delaere KPJ, et al: Oral desmopressin as a new treatment modality for primary nocturnal enuresis in adolescents and adults: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter study. J Urol 157:513–517, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Jensen PS: Current concepts and controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2:102–109, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Jensen PS, Hinshaw SP, Kraemer HC, et al: ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: comparing comorbid subgroups. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:147–158, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Jensen PS, Arnold LE, Swanson JM, et al: 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:989–1002, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Joorabchi B: Expressions of the hyperventilation syndrome in childhood. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 16:1110–1115, 1977
[PubMed]
 
Kafantaris V, Coletti DJ, Dicker R, et al: Lithium treatment of acute mania in adolescents: a large open trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1038–1045, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Kafantaris V, Coletti DJ, Dicker R, et al: Lithium treatment of acute mania in adolescents: a placebo-controlled discontinuation study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:984–993, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Kant R, Chalansani R, Chengappa KNR, et al: The off-label use of clozapine in adolescents with bipolar disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:57–63, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Kazdin AD: Developing a research agenda for child and adolescent psychotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:829–835, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Kazdin AD: Parent Management Training: Treatment for Oppositional, Aggressive, and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents. New York, Oxford University Press, 2005
 
Keller MB, Ryan ND, Strober M, et al: Efficacy of paroxetine in the treatment of adolescent major depression: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:762–772, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Kemner C, Willemsen-Swinkels SH, de Jonge M, et al: Open-label study of olanzapine in children with pervasive developmental disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:455–460, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Kerbeshian J, Burd L, Fisher W: Lithium carbonate in the treatment of two patients with infantile autism and atypical bipolar symptomatology. J Clin Psychopharmacol 7:401–405, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Kernberg PF, Chazan SE: Children With Conduct Disorders: A Psychotherapy Manual. New York, Basic Books, 1991
 
Kisch EH: Brief psychotherapy with children, adolescents, and their families. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 6:137–150, 1997
 
Klein RG, Koplewicz HS, Kanner A: Imipramine treatment of children with separation anxiety disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:21–28, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Kolmen BK, Feldman HM, Handen BL, et al: Naltrexone in young autistic children: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:223–231, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Kowatch RA, Bucci JP: Mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants. Pediatr Clin North Am 45:1173–1186, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Kowatch RA, Suppes T, Carmody TJ, et al: Effect size of lithium, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:713–720, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Kratochvil CJ, Heiligenstein JH, Dittman R, et al: Atomoxetine and methylphenidate treatment in children with ADHD: a prospective, randomized, open-label trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:776–784, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Kratochvil CJ, Wilens TE, Greenhill LL, et al: Effects of long-term atomoxetine treatment for young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:919–927, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Kumra S, Frazier JA, Jacobsen LK, et al: Child-onset schizophrenia: a double-blind clozapine-haloperidol comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:1090–1097, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Kumra S, Jacobsen L, Lenane M, et al: Case series: Spectrum of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders and extrapyramidal side effects in childhood-onset schizophrenia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:221–227, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Kurlan R, Goetz CG, McDermott MP, et al: Treatment of ADHD in children with tics: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 58:527–536, 2002
 
Kutcher SP, Williamson P, MacKenzie S, et al: Successful clonazepam treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia in older adolescents and young adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 9:403–406, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Kutcher SP, Reiter S, Gardner DM, et al: The pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Psychiatr Clin North Am 15:41–67, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Leckman JF, Ort S, Caruso KA, et al: Rebound phenomena in Tourette's syndrome after abrupt withdrawal of clonidine: behavioral, cardiovascular, and neurochemical effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 43:1168–1176, 1986
[PubMed]
 
Leckman JF, Hardin MT, Riddle MA, et al: Clonidine treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:324–328, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Levine MD: Encopresis: its potentiation, evaluation and alleviation. Pediatr Clin North Am 29:315–330, 1982
[PubMed]
 
Lewinsohn PM, Clarke GN, Hops H, et al: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents. Behav Ther 21:385–401, 1990
 
Lewis O: Psychological factors affecting pharmacological compliance. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 4:15–22, 1995
 
Lewis O: Integrated psychodynamic psychotherapy with children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 6:53–68, 1997
 
Lipinski F, Mallya G, Zimmerman P, et al: Fluoxetine-induced akathisia: clinical and theoretical implications. J Clin Psychiatry 50:339–342, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Malone RP, Delaney MA, Luebbert JF, et al: A double-blind placebo-controlled study of lithium in hospitalized aggressive children and adolescents with conduct disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:649–654, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Mandoki MW, Tapia MR, Tapia MA, et al: Venlafaxine in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 33:149–154, 1997
[PubMed]
 
March JS, Mulle K, Herbel B: Behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial of a new protocol-driven treatment package. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:333–341, 1994
[PubMed]
 
March JS, Foa E, Gammon P, et al: Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292:1969–1976, 2004
 
March JS, Silva S, Vitiello B: The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study: methods and message at 12 weeks. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1393–1403, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Martin A, Scahill L, Anderson G, et al: Weight and leptin changes among risperidone-treated youths with autism: 6-month prospective data. Am J Psychiatry 161:1125–1127, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Masek BJ, Spirito A, Fentress DW: Behavioral treatment of symptoms of childhood illness. Clin Psychol Rev 4:561–570, 1984
 
Masi G, Toni C, Mucci M, et al: Paroxetine in child and adolescent outpatients with panic disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11:151–157, 2001a
 
Masi G, Cosenza A, Mucci M: Open trial of risperidone in 24 young children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1206–1214, 2001b
 
Masi G, Cosenza A, Mucci M, et al: A 3-year naturalistic study of 53 preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders treated with risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry 64:1039–1047, 2003
[PubMed]
 
McConville B, Carrero L, Sweitzer D, et al: Long-term safety, tolerability, and clinical efficacy of quetiapine in adolescents: an open-label extension trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:75–82, 2003
[PubMed]
 
McCracken JT, Biederman J, Greenhill LL, et al: Analog classroom assessment of a once-daily mixed amphetamine formulation, SLI381 (Adderall XR), in children with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:673–683, 2003
[PubMed]
 
McCracken JT, Aman MG, McDougle CJ, et al (Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network): Risperidone treatment of autistic disorder: longer-term benefits and blinded discontinuation after 6 months. Am J Psychiatry 162:1361–1369, 2005
 
McDaniel KD: Pharmacological treatment of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, I. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 25:65–71, 1986
[PubMed]
 
McDougle CJ, Kem DL, Posey DJ: Case series: use of ziprasidone for maladaptive symptoms in youths with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:921–927, 2002
[PubMed]
 
McDougle CJ, Scahill L, Aman M, et al: Risperidone for the core symptom domains of autism: results from the study by the Autism Network of the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology. Am J Psychiatry 162:1142–1148, 2005
[PubMed]
 
McGough JJ, Biederman J, Wigal SB, et al: Long-term tolerability and effectiveness of once-daily mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR) in children with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:530–538, 2005
[PubMed]
 
McGough JJ, Wigal SB, Abikoff H, et al: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, laboratory classroom assessment of methylphenidate transdermal system in children with ADHD. J Atten Disord 9:476–485, 2006
[PubMed]
 
McMahon R, Forehand R: Helping the Noncompliant Child: Family-Based Treatment for Oppositional Behavior, 2nd Edition. New York, Guilford, 2003
 
McMillen JC, Zima BT, Scott LD, et al: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among older youths in the foster care system. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:88–95, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Measham TJ: The acute management of aggressive behavior in hospitalized children and adolescents. Can J Psychiatry 40:330–336, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Melamed BG, Klingman A, Siegel LJ: Individualizing cognitive behavioral strategies in the reduction of medical and dental stress, in Cognitive Behavior Therapy With Children. Edited by Meyers AW, Craighead WE. New York, Plenum, 1984, pp 289–313
 
Mikkelson EJ: Enuresis and encopresis: ten years of progress. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:1146–1158, 2001
 
Mohammadi MR, Ghanizadeh A, Alaghband-rad J, et al: Selegiline in comparison with methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children and adolescents in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:418–425, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Montgomery P, Bjornstad G, Dennis J: Media-based behavioural treatments for behavioural problems in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD002206, 2006
 
MTA Cooperative Group: A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:1073–1086, 1999
 
MTA Cooperative Group: National Institute of Mental Health Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD Follow-up: 24-month outcomes of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 113:754–761, 2004
 
Mufson L, Dorta KP, Moreau D, et al: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents, 2nd Edition. New York, Guilford, 2004a
 
Mufson L, Dorta KP, Wickramaratne P, et al: A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:577–584, 2004b
 
Mukaddes NM, Abali O: Quetiapine treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:295–299, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Newcorn JH, Spencer TJ, Biederman J, et al: Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:240–248, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Newman TB: A black box warning for antidepressants in children? N Engl J Med 351:1595–1598, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Niederhofer H: An open trial of buspirone in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 18:489–492, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Niederhofer H, Staffen W: Acamprosate and its efficacy in treating alcohol dependent adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 12:144–148, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Nilsson M, Joliat MJ, Miner CM, et al: Safety of subchronic treatment with Fluoxetine for major depressive disorder in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:412–417, 2004
[PubMed]
 
O'Brien JD, Perlmutter I: The effect of medication on the process of psychotherapy. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin North Am 6:185–196, 1997
 
Olfson M, Marcus SC, Weissman MM, et al: National trends in the use of psychotropic medication by children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:514–521, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Olness K, Kohen DP: Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy With Children, 3rd Edition. New York, Guilford, 1996
 
Pappadopulos E, MacIntyre JC, Crimson ML, et al: Treatment recommendations for the use of antipsychotics for aggressive youth (TRAAY), Part II. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:145–161, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Pappagallo M, Silva R: The effect of atypical antipsychotic agents on prolactin levels in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:359–371, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Párraga HC, Párraga MI, Woodward RL, et al: Quetiapine treatment of children with Tourette's syndrome: report of two cases. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11:187–191, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Patel NC, DelBello MP, Bryan HS, et al: Open-label lithium for the treatment of adolescents with bipolar depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:289–297, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Pathak S, Johns ES, Kowatch RA: Adjunctive quetiapine for treatment-resistant adolescent major depressive disorder: a case series. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15:696–702, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Patterson GR: Families: Applications of Social Learning to Family Life. Champaign, IL, Research Press, 1975
 
Patterson GR, Forgatch M: Parents and Adolescents Living Together: The Basics, 2nd Edition. Champaign, IL, Research Press, 2005
 
Pearson DA, Santos CW, Roache JD, et al: Treatment effects of methylphenidate on behavioral adjustment in children with mental retardation and ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:209–216, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Pelham WE Jr, Hoza J: Behavioral assessment of psychostimulant effects on ADD children in a summer day treatment program, in Advances in Behavioral Assessment of Children and Families, Vol 3. Edited by Prinz R. Greenwich, CT, JAI Press, 1987, pp 3–33
 
Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Greiner AR, et al: Behavioral versus behavioral and pharmacological treatment in ADHD children attending a summer treatment program. J Abnorm Child Psychol 28:507–526, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Pelham WE, Massetti GM, Wilson T, et al: Implementation of a comprehensive schoolwide behavioral intervention: the ABC Program. J Atten Disord 9:248–260, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Percy AK, Glaze DG, Schultz RJ, et al: Rett syndrome: controlled study of an oral opiate antagonist, naltrexone. Ann Neurol 35:464–470, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Pfefferbaum B, Overall JE, Boron HA, et al: Alprazolam in the treatment of anticipatory and acute situational anxiety in children with cancer. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26:532–535, 1987
[PubMed]
 
PhysiciansMedGuide: The Use of Medication in Treating Childhood and Adolescent Depression: Information for Physicians. Available at: http://www.physiciansmedguide.org/physiciansmedguide.htm#c12. Accessed April 30, 2006.
 
Pliszka SR: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Adderall and methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:619–626, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Pliszka SR, Crismon ML, Hughes CW, et al: The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: revision of the algorithm for pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:642–657, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Pool D, Bloom W, Mielke DH, et al: A controlled evaluation of Loxitane in seventy-five adolescent schizophrenic patients. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 19:99–104, 1976
[PubMed]
 
Poulton A: Growth on stimulant medication; clarifying the confusion: a review. Arch Dis Child 90:801–806, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Powers PS, Sachs BS, Kushner SF, et al: Topiramate in adults with acute bipolar I mania: pooled results. Presented at the 157th annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, New York, NY, May 1–6, 2004
 
Rapoport JL: Antidepressants in childhood attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychosomatics 27 (suppl):30–36, 1986
 
Ratey J, Sovner R, Parks A, et al: Buspirone treatment of aggression and anxiety in mentally retarded patients: a multiple-baseline, placebo lead-in study. J Clin Psychiatry 52:159–162, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Realmuto GM, Erickson WD, Yellin AM, et al: Clinical comparison of thiothixene and thioridazine in schizophrenic adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 141:440–442, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Reischer H, Pfeffer CR: Lithium pharmacokinetics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:130–131, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Richardson MA, Haugland G, Craig TJ: Neuroleptic use, parkinsonian symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, and associated factors in child and adolescent psychiatric patients. Am J Psychiatry 148:1322–1328, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Riddle MA: Paroxetine and the FDA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:128–130, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Rojas NL, Chan E: Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 11:116–130, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Rosenfeld AA, Pilowsky DJ, Fine P, et al: Foster care: an update. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:448–457, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Ryan ND: Heterocyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:21–31, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Ryan ND: The pharmacological treatment of child and adolescent depression. Psychiatr Clin North Am 15:29–40, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Rynn MA, Siqueland L, Rickels K: Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of children with generalized anxiety disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158:2008–2014, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Safer DJ: Changing patterns of psychotropic medications prescribed by child psychiatrists in the 1990s. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 7:267–274, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Saito E, Correll CU, Gallelli K, et al: A prospective study of hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents treated with atypical antipsychotic agents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:350–358, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Sallee F, Stiller R, Perel J, et al: Targeting imipramine dose in children with depression. Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:8–13, 1986
[PubMed]
 
Sallee FR, Kurlan R, Goetz CG, et al: Ziprasidone treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:292–299, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Samuel RZ: EPS with lithium (letter). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:1078, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Sanchez LE, Campbell M, Small AM: A pilot study of clomipramine in young autistic children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:537–544, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Saul RC: Nortriptyline in attention deficit disorder. Clin Neuropharmacol 8:382–384, 1985
[PubMed]
 
Scahill L, Chappell PB, Kim YS, et al: A placebo-controlled study of guanfacine in the treatment of children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158:1067–1074, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Scahill L, McCracken JT, McGough J, et al (Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network): Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. N Engl J Med 347:314–321, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Scahill L, Leckman JF, Schultz RT, et al: A placebo-controlled trial of risperidone in Tourette syndrome. Neurology 60:1130–1135, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Scahill L, Aman MG, McDougle CJ, et al: A prospective open trial of guanfacine in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16:589–598, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Scharko AM: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction in adolescents: a review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:1071–1079, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Scheidlinger S: Short-term group psychotherapy for children: an overview. Int J Group Psychother 34:573–585, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Scheidlinger S: Group treatment of adolescents: an overview. Am J Orthopsychiatry 55:102–111, 1985
[PubMed]
 
Schur SB, Sikich L, Findling RL, et al: Treatment Recommendations for the Use of Antipsychotics for Aggressive Youth (TRAAY), part I: a review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 42:132–144, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Seedat S, Stein DJ, Ziervogel C, et al: Comparison of response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in children, adolescents, and adults with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 12:37–46, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Serketich WJ, Dumas JE: The effectiveness of behavioral parent training to modify antisocial behavior in children: a meta-analysis. Behavioral Therapy 27:171–186, 1996
 
Shea S, Turgay A, Carroll A, et al: Risperidone in the treatment of disruptive behavioral symptoms in children with autistic and other pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatrics 114:634–641, 2004
 
Shire U.S. Inc: U.S. product labeling for Daytrana (methylphenidate transdermal system). Available at: http://www.daytrana.com/pdf/pdf1.pdf. Accessed June 25, 2006.
 
Sikich L, Hamer RM, Bashford RA, et al: A pilot study of risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol in psychotic youth: a double-blind, randomized, 8-week trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:133–145, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Silver LB: Alternative (nonstimulant) medications in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 46:965–975, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Silverman WK: Using what works to help children manage stress and anxiety: an appeal for pragmatism. Session: Psychotherapy in Practice 3:103–108, 1997
 
Silverman WK, Kurtines WM, Ginsburg GS, et al: Treating anxiety disorders in children with group cognitive-behavioral therapy: a randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 67:995–1003, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Simeon JG, Ferguson HB: Recent developments in the use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medications. Psychiatr Clin North Am 8:893–907, 1985
[PubMed]
 
Simeon JG, Ferguson HB, Knott V, et al: Clinical, cognitive, and neurophysiological effects of alprazolam in children and adolescents with overanxious and avoidant disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:29–33, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Singer HS, Brown J: The treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Tourette's syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study with clonidine and desipramine. Pediatrics 95:74–81, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Skoog SJ, Stokes A, Turner K: Oral desmopressin: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study of effectiveness in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. J Urol 158:1035–1040, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Smith P, Yule W, Perrin S, et al: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:1051–1061, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Snyder R, Turgay A, Aman M, et al: Effects of risperidone on conduct and disruptive behavior disorders in children with subaverage IQs. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1026–1036, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Gillberg C: A clinical case series of six extremely aggressive youths treated with olanzapine. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 11:138–141, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Sokolski KN, Chicz-Demet A, Demet EM: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-related extrapyramidal symptoms in autistic children: a case series. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:143–147, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Soni P, Weintraub AL: Case study: buspirone-associated mental status changes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:1098–1099, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Sours JA: The application of child analytic principles to forms of child psychotherapy, in Child Analysis and Therapy. Edited by Glenn J. New York, Jason Aronson, 1978, pp 615–646
 
Spencer EK, Kafantaris V, Padron-Gayol MV, et al: Haloperidol in schizophrenic children: early findings from a study in progress. Psychopharmacol Bull 28:183–186, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Spencer T, Biederman J, Steingard R, et al: Bupropion exacerbates tics in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Tourette's syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:211–214, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Spencer T, Wilens T, Biederman J: Psychotropic medication for children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 4:97–121, 1995
 
Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T, et al: Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder across the life cycle. J Am Acad Child Adoles Psychiatry 35:409–432, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Spencer T, Biederman J, Coffey B, et al: A double-blind comparison of desipramine and placebo in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:649–656, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Spencer T, Newcorn JH, Kratochvil CJ, et al: Effects of Atomoxetine on growth after 2-year treatment among pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics [serial online] 116:e74–e80, 2005. Available at: http://www.pediatrics/org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2004–0624. Accessed March 17, 2006.
 
Stahl SM: Essential Pharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications, 2nd Edition. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp 246–255
 
Standaert DG, Young AB: Treatment of central nervous system degenerative disorders (Chapter 20), in Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11th Edition. Edited by Brunton LL. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2006. Available at: http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed May 2, 2006.
 
Steingard R, Biederman J: Lithium responsive manic-like symptoms in two individuals with autism and mental retardation. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 26:932–935, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Steingard R, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, et al: Comparison of clonidine response in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid tic disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:350–353, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Stephens RJ, Bassel C, Sandor P: Olanzapine in the treatment of aggression and tics in children with Tourette's syndrome—a pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:255–266, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Stigler KA, Posey DJ, McDougle CJ: Aripiprazole for maladaptive behavior in pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:455–463, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Strayhorn JM Jr: The Competent Child: An Approach to Psychotherapy and Preventive Mental Health. New York, Guilford, 1988
 
Strupp HH: Psychotherapy: Clinical, Research, and Theoretical Issues. New York, Jason Aronson, 1973
 
Sugai G, Horner RH: Introduction to the special series on positive behavior support in schools. J Emotional Behavioral Disorders 10:130–136, 2002
 
Swanson JM, Gupta S, Williams L, et al: Efficacy of a new pattern of delivery of methylphenidate for the treatment of ADHD: effects on activity level in the classroom and on the playground. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1306–1314, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Swanson JM, Greenhill LL, Lopez FA, et al: Modafinil film-coated tablets in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study followed by abrupt discontinuation. J Clin Psychiatry 67:137–147, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Swanson JM, Elliott GR, Greenhill LL, et al: Effects of stimulant medication on growth rates across 3 years in the MTA follow-up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:1015–1027, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Teicher MH, Glod CA: Neuroleptic drugs: indications and guidelines for their rational use in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:33–56, 1990
 
Thompson S, Rey JM: Functional enuresis: is desmopressin the answer? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:266–271, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Trimble MR: Anticonvulsants in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:33–56, 1990
 
Troost PW, Lahuis BE, Steenhuis MP, et al: Long-term effects of risperidone in children with autism spectrum disorders: a placebo-discontinuation study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1137–1144, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Turgay A, Binder C, Snyder R, et al: Long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behavior disorders in children with subaverage IQs. Pediatrics [serial online] 110:e34, 2002. Available at: http://www.pediatrics/org/cgi/content/full/110/3/e34. Accessed April 2, 2006.
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2003a): FDA statement regarding the antidepressant Paxil for pediatric population. June 19, 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2003/ANS01230.html. Accessed March 19, 2006.
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2003b): FDA issues public health advisory entitled: Reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder (MDD). October 27, 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2003/ANS12356.html. Accessed March 19, 2006.
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2004a): FDA updates its review of antidepressant drugs in children. August 20, 2004. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2004/ANS01306.html. Accessed March 19, 2006.
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2004b): Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Transcript of the joint meeting of the CDER psychopharmacological drugs advisory committee and the FDA pediatric advisory committee. September 14, 2004. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/04/transcripts/2004–4065T2.pdf. Accessed April 30, 2006.
 
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2004c): FDA statement on recommendations of the psychopharmacological drugs and pediatric advisory committees. September 16, 2004. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2004/NEW01116.html. Accessed January 8, 2006.
 
Van Putten T, Marder SR: Behavioral toxicity of antipsychotic drugs. J Clin Psychiatry 48 (suppl):13–19, 1987
 
Varley C, McClellan J: Case study: two additional sudden deaths with tricyclic antidepressants. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:390–394, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Varni JW, Jay SM, Masek BJ, et al: Cognitive-behavioral assessment and management of pediatric pain, in Handbook of Psychological Treatment Approaches. Edited by Holvman AD, Turk ED. New York, Pergamon, 1986, pp 168–192
 
Vieweg WVR, Sood AB, Pandurangi A, et al: Newer antipsychotic drugs and obesity in children and adolescents. How should we assess drug-associated weight gain? Acta Psychiatr Scand 111:177–184, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Vitiello B, Severe JB, Greenhill LL, et al: Methylphenidate dosage for children with ADHD over time under controlled conditions: lessons from the MTA. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:188–196, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Wagner KD, Weller EB, Carlson GA, et al: An open-label trial of divalproex in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1224–1230, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Wagner KD, Ambrosini P, Rynn M, et al: Efficacy of sertraline in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder—two randomized controlled trials. JAMA 290:1033–1041, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Wagner KD, Robb AS, Findling RL, et al: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram for the treatment of major depression in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 161:1079–1083, 2004a
 
Wagner KD, Berard R, Stein MB, et al: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in children and adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:1153–1162, 2004b
 
Wagner KD, Jonas J, Findling RL, et al: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in the treatment of pediatric depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:280–288, 2006a
 
Wagner KD, Kowatch RA, Emslie, GJ, et al: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oxcarbazepine in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 163:1179–1186, 2006b
 
Walkup JT, Labellarte M: Complications of SSRI treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11:1–4, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Walkup JT, Labellarte MJ, Riddle MA, et al: Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 344:1279–1285, 2001
 
Walsh BT, Greenhill LL, Elsa-Grace V, et al: Effects of desipramine on autonomic input to the heart. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1186–1193, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Waslick BD, Walsh BT, Greenhill LL, et al: Cardiovascular effects of desipramine in children and adults during exercise testing. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:179–186, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Wehmeier PM, Schüler-Springorum M, Heiser P, et al: Chart review for potential features of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiomyopathy in children and adolescents treated with clozapine. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:267–271, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Weiss B, Catron T, Harris V: A 2-year follow-up of the effectiveness of traditional child psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 68:1094–1101, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Weiss M, Tannock R, Kratochvil C, et al: A randomized, placebo-controlled study of once-daily atomoxetine in the school setting in children with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:647–655, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Weisz JR: Agenda for child and adolescent psychotherapy research. On the need to put science into practice. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:837–838, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Weisz JR, Jensen AL: Child and adolescent psychotherapy in research and practice contexts: review of the evidence and suggestions for improving the field. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 10 (suppl 1):I/12–I/18, 2001
 
Weisz JR, Hawley KM, Doss AJ: Empirically tested psychotherapies for youth internalizing and externalizing problems and disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 13:729–815, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Weller EB, Weller RA, Fristad MA: Lithium dosage guide for prepubertal children: a preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 25:92–95, 1986
[PubMed]
 
Whalen EH, Henker B: Social impact of stimulant treatment for hyperactive children. Journal of Learning Disabilities 24:231–241, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Whittington CJ, Kendall T, Fonagy P, et al: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet 363:1341–1345, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Wigal S, Swanson JM, Feifel D, et al: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:1406–1414, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Wigal S, McGough J, McCracken JT, et al: A laboratory school comparison of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (Adderall XR) and atomoxetine (Strattera) in school-aged children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Atten Disord 9:275–289, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Wilens TE, Spencer TJ, Swanson JM, et al: Combining methylphenidate and clonidine: a clinically sound medication option. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:614–622, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Wilens TE, Biederman J, Baldessarini RJ, et al: Cardiovascular effects of therapeutic doses of tricyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1491–1501, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Wilens TE, Biederman J, Kwon A, et al: A systematic chart review of the nature of psychiatric adverse events in children and adolescents treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:143–152, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Wilens T, McBurnett K, Stein M, et al: ADHD treatment with once-daily OROS methylphenidate: final results from a long-term open-label study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1015–1023, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Willemsen-Swinkels SH, Buitelaar JK, van Engeland H: The effects of chronic naltrexone treatment in young autistic children: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Biol Psychiatry 39:1023–1031, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Williams DT: Hypnosis as a psychotherapeutic adjunct, in Basic Handbook of Child Psychiatry, Vol 3: Therapeutic Interventions. Edited by Harrison SI. New York, Basic Books, 1979, pp 108–116
 
Williams DT, Mehl R, Yudofsky S, et al: The effect of propranolol on uncontrolled rage outbursts in children and adolescents with organic brain dysfunction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 21:129–135, 1982
[PubMed]
 
Winsberg BG, Perel JM, Hurwic MJ, et al: Imipramine protein binding and pharmacokinetics in children, in The Phenothiazines and Structurally Related Drugs. Edited by Forrest IS, Carr CJ, Usdin E. New York, Raven, 1974, pp 425–431
 
Wolraich ML, Wilson DB, White JW: The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children: a meta-analysis. JAMA 274:1617–1621, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Wolraich ML, Feurer I, Hannah JN, et al: Obtaining systematic teacher reports of disruptive behavior disorders utilizing DSM-IV. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26:141–152, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Wolraich ML, Lambert W, Doffing MA, et al: Psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic parent rating scale in a referred population. J Pediatr Psychol 28:559–568, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Woolston JL: Case study: carbamazepine treatment of juvenile-onset bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:335–338, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Zahn TP, Rapoport JL, Thompson CL: Autonomic and behavioral effects of dextroamphetamine and placebo in normal and hyperactive prepubertal boys. J Abnorm Child Psychol 8:145–160, 1980
[PubMed]
 
Zito JM, Safer DJ, dosReis S, et al: Trends in the prescribing of psychotropic medications to preschoolers. JAMA 283:1025–1030, 2000
[PubMed]
 
+

CME Activity

Add a subscription to complete this activity and earn CME credit.
Sample questions:
1.
Among the most commonly used classes of medication in child psychiatry are stimulants for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which of the following statements regarding stimulants is true?
2.
The use of stimulants to treat pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid with neuropsychiatric illness is often successful but is subject to some important caveats. Which of the following statements is true?
3.
The 2-agonists clonidine and guanfacine represent an alternative pharmacological approach to treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which of the following statements is true?
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 1.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 2.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 3.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 4.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 5.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation