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Chapter 1. Epidemiology

Jean A. Langlois Orman, Sc.D., M.P.H.; Jess F. Kraus, M.P.H., Ph.D.; Eduard Zaloshnja, Ph.D.; Ted Miller, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585624201.670001

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Excerpt

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most disabling of injuries. Concern about TBIs related to the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts has led to increased interest in the epidemiology of TBI among service members and veterans as well as civilians. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the epidemiology of TBI in terms of frequency, severity, outcomes, and cost, focusing primarily on the most recent population-based data for the United States, including military as well as civilian data when available, and highlighting issues that affect the accuracy, completeness, and interpretation of epidemiological data for TBI.

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Figure 1–1. Percentage of traumatic brain injury hospitalizations pre- and postwar, by selected external causes, U.S. Armed Forces, 1997–2006.Excludes other causes (prewar: 5.5%; postwar: 4.1%) and missing/invalid code (prewar: 25.3%; postwar: 38.1%). Prewar = January 1, 1997, to August 31, 2001; postwar = September 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006.Source. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center 2007.
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Table 1–1. Glasgow Coma Scale scores
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Table 1–2. Severity of brain injury stratification
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Table 1–3. Comparison of mild TBI with moderate and severe TBI
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Table 1–4. Estimated average annual numbers, rates, and percentages of traumatic brain injury–related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths, by age group, United States, 2002–2006
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Table 1–5. Institute of Medicine summary of long-term (lasting more than 6 months) health effects of TBI by severity and strength of evidence
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Table 1–6. Total lifetime comprehensive costs of traumatic brain injury by level of treatment, 2000 (million 2009$)
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Table 1–7. Total lifetime comprehensive costs of traumatic brain injury by sex and age, 2000 (million 2009$)
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Table 1–8. Unit lifetime comprehensive costs of traumatic brain injury by sex and age, 2000 (2009$)
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Table 1–9. Incidence and lifetime medical and work loss costs of traumatic brain injury by mechanism, 2000 (2009$)

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