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Chapter 5. Chemical Messengers

Jason D. Kilts, Ph.D.; Jennifer C. Naylor, Ph.D.; Victoria M. Payne, M.D.; Jennifer L. Strauss, Ph.D.; Patrick S. Calhoun, Ph.D.; Christine E. Marx, M.D., M.A.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623754.387983

Sections

Excerpt

The clinical treatment of age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) has evolved from the initial challenges of simple recognition of the disorders, to attempts to delineate components important in the pathogenesis of those disorders, to attempts to define biomarkers that could be used for early detection of the onset of those disorders. Before attempting to determine which types of markers would be relevant for a given disease, however, one must be familiar with the molecules responsible for mediating the physiological responses that are being altered with age. The list of chemical messengers in the human body is extremely long, but many primary physiological functions can be attributed to the functions of a much smaller subset of messengers. In this chapter, we focus on specific receptor-mediated signaling systems, the molecules that transmit the cellular signals associated with them, and any compounds that have thus far appeared to be beneficial for the treatment of age-related disorders through these systems.

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Table Reference Number
Table 5–1. Several of the primary signaling molecules, associated receptor types, and representative actions

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Acetylcholine (ACh) acts through a family of muscarinic ACh receptors. Which muscarinic (M) receptor is the most abundant receptor in the neocortex and hippocampus tissue?
2.
Which of the following is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain?
3.
The family of serotonin receptors is separated into seven subgroups based on their sequence identities and related functions, with no fewer than 14 individual receptors. Which of the following receptors are decreased by 10% or more per decade in elderly people as compared to young subjects?
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