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Chapter 22. Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Disorders

Andrew D. Krystal, M.D., M.S.; Jack D. Edinger, Ph.D.; William K. Wohlgemuth, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623754.394609

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Excerpt

Sleep disorders are an important aspect of geriatric psychiatry. In the United States, more than half of noninstitutionalized individuals older than 65 years report chronic sleep difficulties (Foley et al. 1995; National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement 1991; Prinz et al. 1990). Sleep disturbances affect quality of life, increase the risk of accidents and falls, and, perhaps most importantly, are among the leading reasons for long-term care placement (Pollak and Perlick 1991; Pollak et al. 1990; Sanford 1975). Working effectively with elderly individuals requires expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.

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FIGURE 22–1. Sleep-stage distributions across age groups.REM = rapid-eye movement.
Table Reference Number
Table 22–1. Attributes of medications used to treat insomnia

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Extensive research has shown that marked changes in sleep and circadian rhythms accompany aging. Which of the following is an example of the changes that will occur with aging?
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Individuals with Alzheimer's disease experience a number of sleep changes. Which of the following is among the leading reasons that individuals with dementia become institutionalized?
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