0
0

Chapter 29. Individual and Group Psychotherapy

Thomas R. Lynch, Ph.D.; Moria J. Smoski, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623754.398072

Sections

Excerpt

Psychotherapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for a number of mental disorders seen in older adults. As a treatment modality it can be particularly useful for older adult psychiatric patients who cannot or will not tolerate medication or who are dealing with stressful conditions, interpersonal difficulties, limited levels of social support, or recurrent episodes of the disorder. However, it has been estimated that only 10% of older adults in need of psychiatric services actually receive professional care, and there has been minimal utilization of mental health services in this age group (Lebowitz et al. 1997; Weissman et al. 1981). Older adults report a longer delay in initiation of mental health treatment than do younger cohort groups (Wang et al. 2005). A review by Unützer et al. (2000) reports a slight improvement in treatment rates over earlier estimates, but a large proportion of older adults with mental disorders remain untreated.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
Table 29–1. Considerations in the adaptation of psychotherapy to older adult populations

References

Abrams RC: Personality disorders in the elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 11:759–763, 1996
 
Abrams RC, Bromberg CE: Personality disorders in the elderly: a flagging field of inquiry. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 21:1013–1017, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Abrams RC, Horowitz SV: Personality disorders after age 50: a meta-analytic review of the literature, in Personality Disorders in Older Adults: Emerging Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment. Edited by Rosowsky E, Abrams RC. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, 1999, pp 55–68
 
Abrams RC, Rosendahl E, Card C, et al: Personality disorder correlates of late and early onset depression. J Am Geriatr Soc 42:727–731, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Adams WL, Yuan Z, Barboriak JJ, et al: Alcohol-related hospitalizations of elderly people: prevalence and geographic variation in the United States. JAMA 270:1222–1225, 1993
[PubMed]
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
 
Areán PA, Perri MG, Nezu AM, et al: Comparative effectiveness of social problem-solving therapy and reminiscence therapy as treatments for depression in older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 61:1003–1010, 1993
 
Babyak M, Blumenthal JA, Herman S, et al: Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosom Med 62:633–638, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Bailey GR Jr: Cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Journal of Psychological Practice 4:51–59, 1998
 
Barber JP, DeRubeis RJ: On second thought: where the action is in cognitive therapy for depression. Cognit Ther Res 13:441–457, 1989
 
Barrowclough C, King P, Colville J, et al: A randomized trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counseling for anxiety symptoms in older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 69:756–762, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Bartels SJ, Coakley EH, Zubritsky C, et al: Improving access to geriatric mental health services: a randomized trial comparing treatment engagement with integrated versus enhanced referral care for depression, anxiety, and at-risk alcohol use. Am J Psychiatry 161:1455–1462, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Beck AT, Freeman A, Davis DD: Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders, 2nd Edition. New York, Guilford, 2004
 
Beutler LE, Scogin F, Kirkish P, et al: Group cognitive therapy and alprazolam in the treatment of depression in older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 55:550–556, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Bibring E: [The problem of depression.] Psyche 6:81–101, 1952
 
Biglan A: Distressed behavior and its context. Behav Anal 14:157–169, 1991
 
Blazer D, George LK, Hughes D: The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: an age comparison, in Anxiety in the Elderly: Treatment and Research. Edited by Salzman C, Lebowitz BD. New York, Springer, 1991, pp 17–30
 
Blumenthal JAP, Babyak MAP, Moore KAP, et al: Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression. Arch Intern Med 159:2349–2356, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Bourgeois MS, Schulz R, Burgio LD, et al: Skills training for spouses of patients with Alzheimer's disease: outcomes of an intervention study. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology 8:53–73, 2002
 
Brand E, Clingempeel WG: Group behavioral therapy with depressed geriatric inpatients: an assessment of incremental efficacy. Behav Ther 23:475–482, 1992
 
Bruce ML, Ten Have TR, Reynolds CF, et al: Reducing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in depressed older primary care patients. JAMA 291:1081–1091, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Burns D: Feeling Good. New York, New American Library, 1980
 
Chao SY, Liu HY, Wu CY, et al: The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents. J Nurs Res 14:36–45, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Chen H, Coakley EH, Cheal K, et al: Satisfaction with mental health services in older primary care patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:371–379, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Coyne JC: Depression and the response of others. J Abnorm Psychol 85:186–193, 1976
[PubMed]
 
DeBerry S: The effects of meditation-relaxation on anxiety and depression in a geriatric population. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 19:512–521, 1982a
 
DeBerry S: An evaluation of progressive muscle relaxation on stress related symptoms in a geriatric population. Int J Aging Hum Dev 14:255–269, 1982b
 
DeBerry S, Davis S, Reinhard KE: A comparison of meditation-relaxation and cognitive behavioral techniques for reducing anxiety and depression in a geriatric population. J Geriatr Psychiatr 22:231–247, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Dimidjian S, Hollon SD, Dobson KS, et al: Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 74:658–670, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Dougher MJ, Hackbert L: A behavior-analytic account of depression and a case report using acceptance-based procedures. Behav Anal 17:321–334, 1994
 
Dupree LW, Broskowski H, Schonfeld LI: The Gerontology Alcohol Project: a behavioral treatment program for elderly alcohol abusers. Gerontologist 24:510–516, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Fingerhood M: Substance abuse in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:985–995, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Fleming MFM, Manwell LB, Barry KLP, et al: Brief physician advice for alcohol problems in older adults: a randomized community-based trial. J Fam Pract 48:378–384, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Flint AJ: Epidemiology and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in the elderly. Am J Psychiatry 15:640–649, 1994
 
Floyd M, Scogin F: Cognitive-behavior therapy for older adults: how does it work? Psychotherapy 35:459–463, 1998
 
Floyd M, Scogin F, Mc-Kendree-Smith NL, et al: Cognitive therapy for depression: a comparison of individual psychotherapy and bibliotherapy for depressed older adults. Behav Modif 28:297–318, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Frank E, Spanier C: Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: overview, clinical efficacy, and future directions. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 2:349–369, 1995
 
Frank E, Frank N, Cornes C, et al: Interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of late-life depression, in New Applications of Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Edited by Klerman GL, Weissman MM. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1993, pp 167–198
 
Fry PS: Structured and unstructured reminiscence training and depression among the elderly. Clin Gerontol 1:15–37, 1983
 
Gallagher DE, Thompson LW: Treatment of major depressive disorder in older adult outpatients with brief psychotherapies. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 19:482–490, 1982
 
Gallagher-Thompson D, Steffen AM: Comparative effects of cognitive-behavioral and brief psychodynamic psychotherapies for depressed family caregivers. J Consult Clin Psychol 62:543–549, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Gallagher-Thompson D, Hanley-Peterson P, Thompson LW: Maintenance of gains versus relapse following brief psychotherapy for depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 58:371–374, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Gerdner LA, Buckwalter KC, Reed D: Impact of a psychoeducational intervention on caregiver response to behavioral problems. Nurs Res 51:363–374, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Gorenstein EE, Kleber MS, Moblman J, et al: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for management of anxiety and medication taper in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatr 13:901–909, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Gortner ET, Gollan JK, Dobson KS, et al: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression: relapse prevention. J Consult Clin Psychol 66:377–384, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Gradman TJ, Thompson LW, Gallagher-Thompson D: Personality disorders and treatment outcome, in Personality Disorders in Older Adults: Emerging Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment. Edited by Rosowsky E, Abrams RC. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, 1999, pp 69–94
 
Gum AM, Areán PA, Hunkeler E, et al: Depression treatment preferences in older primary care patients. Gerontologist 46:14–22, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Hall GR, Buckwalter KC: Progressively lowered stress threshold: a conceptual model for care of adults with Alzheimer's disease. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 1:399–406, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Hegel MTP, Barrett JE, Cornell JE, et al: Predictors of response to problem solving treatment of depression in primary care. Behav Ther 33:511–527, 2002
 
Hinrichsen GA: Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed older adults. J Geriatr Psychiatry 30:239–257, 1997
 
Hirschfeld RM: Personality disorders: definition and diagnosis. J Personal Disord 7:9–17, 1993
 
Huang HL, Shyu YIL, Chen MC, et al: A pilot study on a home-based caregiver training program for improving caregiver self-efficacy and decreasing the behavioral problems of elders with dementia in Taiwan. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 18:337-345, 2003
 
Husaini BA, Cummings S, Kilbourne B, et al: Group therapy for depressed elderly women. Int J Group Psychother 54:295–319, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Jacobson NS, Dobson KS, Truax PA, et al: A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 64:295–304, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Jamison C, Scogin F: The outcome of cognitive bibliotherapy with depressed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 63:644–650, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Jarvik LF, Mintz J, Steuer JL, et al: Treating geriatric depression: a 26-week interim analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 30:713–717, 1982
[PubMed]
 
Koder DA, Brodaty H, Anstey KJ: Cognitive therapy for depression in the elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 11:97–107, 1996
 
Kohut H, Wolf ES: The disorders of the self and their treatment: an outline. Int J Psychoanal 59:413–425, 1978
 
Kenan MM, Kendjelic EM, Molinari VA, et al: Age-related differences in the frequency of personality disorders among inpatient veterans. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 15:831–837, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Klap R, Unroe KT, Unützer J: Caring for mental illness in the United States: a focus on older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 11:517–524, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Lawton MP: Behavioral problems and interventions in Alzheimer's disease: research needs. Int Psychogeriatr 8:95–98, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Lebowitz BD, Pearson JL, Schneider LS, et al: Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life: consensus statement update. JAMA 278:1186–1190, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Lindesay J, Briggs K, Murphy E: The Guy's/Age Concern Survey: prevalence rates of cognitive impairment, depression and anxiety in an urban elderly community. Br J Psychiatry 155:317–329, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Linehan MM: Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New York, Guilford, 1993
 
Livingston G, Johnston K, Katona C, et al: Systematic review of psychological approaches to the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Am J Psychiatry 162:1996–2021, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Lynch TR, Cheavens JS: Dialectical behavior therapy for co-morbid personality disorders. J Clin Psychol 64:154–167, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Lynch TR, Morse JQ, Mendelson T, et al: Dialectical behavior therapy for depressed older adults: a randomized pilot study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 11:33–45, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Lynch TR, Cheavens JS, Cukrowicz KC, et al: Treatment of older adults with co-morbid personality disorder and depression: a dialectical behavior therapy approach. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 22:131–143, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Mahler MS: On child psychosis and schizophrenia: autistic and symbiotic infantile psychoses. Psychoanal Study Child 7:286–305, 1952
 
McCallion P, Toseland RW, Freeman K: An evaluation of a family visit education program. J Am Geriatr Soc 47:203-214, 1999
 
Mohlman J, Gorman JM: The role of executive functioning in CBT: a pilot study with anxious older adults. Behav Res Ther 43:447–465, 2004
 
Mohlman J, Gorenstein EE, Kleber M, et al: Standard and enhanced cognitive-behavior therapy for late-life generalized anxiety disorder: two pilot investigations. Am J Geriatric Psychiatry 11:24-32, 2003
 
Moore AA, Morton SC, Beck JC, et al: A new paradigm for alcohol use in older persons. Med Care 37:165–179, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Morse JQ, Lynch TR: Personality disorders in late-life. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2:24–31, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Morse JQ, Lynch TR: A preliminary investigation of self-reported personality disorders in late life: Prevalence, predictors of depressive severity, and clinical correlates. Aging Ment Health 8:307-315, 2004
 
Mynors-Wallis LM: Pharmacotherapy is more effective than psychotherapy for elderly people with minor depression or dysthymia. Evidence-Based Healthcare 5:61, 2001
 
Nezu AM: A problem-solving formulation of depression: a literature review and proposal of a pluralistic model. Clin Psychol Rev 7:121–144, 1987
 
Onder G, Zanetti O, Giocobini E, et al: Reality orientation therapy combined with cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 187:450–455, 2005
[PubMed]
 
O'Rourke N, Hadjistavropoulos T: The relative efficacy of psychotherapy in the treatment of geriatric depression. Aging Ment Health 1:305–310, 1997
 
Oslin DW: Evidence-based treatment of geriatric substance abuse. Psychiatr Clin North Am 28:897–911, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Oslin DW, Katz IR, Edell WS, et al: Effects of alcohol consumption on the treatment of depression among elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 8:215–220, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Palmer BW, Jeste DV, Sheikh JI: Anxiety disorders in the elderly: DSM-IV and other barriers to diagnosis and treatment. J Affect Disord 46:183–190, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Perrotta P, Meacham JA: Can a reminiscing intervention alter depression and self-esteem? Int J Aging Hum Dev 14:23–30, 1982
 
Pilkonis PA, Kim Y, Proietti JM, et al: Scales for personality disorders developed from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. J Personal Disord 10: 355–369, 1996
 
Proctor R, Burns A, Powell HS, et al: Behavioural management in nursing and residential homes: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 354:26–29, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Quayhagen MP, Quayhagen M, Corbeil RR, et al: A dyadic remediation program for care recipients with dementia. Nurs Res 44:153–159, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Quayhagen MP, Quayhagen M, Corbeil RR, et al: Coping with dementia: evaluation of four nonpharmacologic interventions. Int Psychogeriatr 12:249–265, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Regier DA, Boyd JH, Burke JD, et al: One-month prevalence of mental disorders in the United States: based on five epidemiologic catchment area sites. Arch Gen Psychiatry 45:977–986, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Reynolds CF 3rd, Frank E, Perel JM, et al: Combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the acute and continuation treatment of elderly patients with recurrent major depression: a preliminary report. Am J Psychiatry 149:1687–1692, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Reynolds CF 3rd, Frank E, Perel JM, et al: Treatment of consecutive episodes of major depression in the elderly. Am J Psychiatry 151:1740–1743, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Reynolds CF 3rd, Frank E, Houck PR, et al: Which elderly patients with remitted depression remain well with continued interpersonal psychotherapy after discontinuation of antidepressant medication? Am J Psychiatry 154:958–962, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Reynolds CF 3rd, Frank E, Perel JM, et al: Nortriptyline and interpersonal psychotherapy as maintenance therapies for recurrent major depression: a randomized controlled trial in patients older than 59 years. JAMA 281:39–45, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Rickard HC, Scogin F, Keith S: A one-year follow-up of relaxation training for elders with subjective anxiety. Gerontologist 34:121–122, 1984
 
Rokke PD, Scogin F: Depression treatment preferences in younger and older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology 1:243–257, 1995
 
Rokke PD, Tomhave JA, Jocic Z: The role of client choice and target selection in self-management therapy for depression in older adults. Psychol Aging 14:155–169, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Rose J, Schwarz M, Steffen AM, et al: Personality disorder and outcome in the treatment of depressed elders: two year follow-up. Poster presented at the 44th Annual Conference of the Gerontological Society of America, San Francisco, CA, November 22–26, 1991
 
Sable JA, Jeste DV: Anxiety disorders in older adults. Curr Psychiatr Rep 3:302–307, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Schonfeld L, Dupree LW, Dickson-Fuhrmann E, et al: Cognitive-behavioral treatment of older veterans with substance abuse problems. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 13:124–129, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Scogin F, McElreath L: Efficacy of psychosocial treatments for geriatric depression: a quantitative review. J Consult Clin Psychol 62:69–73, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Scogin F, Jamison C, Gochneaur K: Comparative efficacy of cognitive and behavioral bibliotherapy for mildly and moderately depressed older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 57:403–407, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Scogin F, Jamison C, Davis N: Two-year follow-up of bibliotherapy for depression in older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 58:665–667, 1990
[PubMed]
 
Scogin F, Rickard HC, Keith S, et al: Progressive and imaginal relaxation training for elderly persons with subjective anxiety. Psychol Aging 7:419–424, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Severson MA, Smith GE, Tangalos EG, et al: Patterns and predictors of institutionalization in community-based dementia patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 42:181–185, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Singh NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone Singh MA: The efficacy of exercise as a long-term antidepressant in elderly subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M497–M504, 2001
 
Sirey JA, Bruce ML, Alexopoulos GS, et al: Perceived stigma as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in young and older outpatients with depression. Am J Psychiatry 158:479–481, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Sloane RB, Staples FR, Schneider LSM: Interpersonal therapy versus nortriptyline for depression in the elderly: case reports and discussion, in Clinical and Pharmacological Studies of Psychiatric Disorders. Edited by Burrows G, Norman TR, Dennerstein L. London, John Libbey, 1985, pp 344–346
 
Spector A, Orrell M, Davies S, et al: Can reality orientation be rehabilitated? Development and piloting of an evidence-based programme of cognition-based therapies for people with dementia. Neuropsychol Rehabil 11:377–379, 2001
 
Spector A, Thorgrimsen L, Woods B, et al: Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 183:248–254, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Stanley MA, Novy DM: Cognitive-behavior therapy for generalized anxiety in late life: an evaluative overview. J Anxiety Disord 14:191–207, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Stanley MA, Beck JG, Glassco JD: Treatment of generalized anxiety in older adults: a preliminary comparison of cognitive-behavioral and supportive approaches. Behav Ther 27:565–581, 1996
 
Stanley MA, Roberts RE, Bourland SL, et al: Anxiety disorders among older primary care patients. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology 7:105–116, 2001
 
Stanley MA, Beck JG, Novy DM, et al: Cognitive behavioral treatment of late-life generalized anxiety disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 71:309–319, 2003a
 
Stanley MA, Hopko DR, Diefenbach GJ, et al: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for older adults with late-life anxiety disorder in primary care: preliminary findings. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 11:92–96, 2003b
 
Stanley MA, Diefenbach GJ, Hopko DR: Cognitive behavioral treatment for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: a therapist manual for primary care settings. Behav Mod 28:73-117, 2004
 
Steuer JL: Cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic group psychotherapy in treatment of geriatric depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 52:180–189, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Stinson CK, Kirk E: Structured reminiscence: an intervention to decrease depression and increase self-transcendence in older women. J Clin Nursing 15:208–218, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Teasdale JD, Moore RG, Hayhurst H, et al: Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: empirical evidence. J Consult Clin Psychol 70:275–287, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Teri L, Logsdon RG, Uomoto J, et al: Behavioral treatment of depression in dementia patients: a controlled clinical trial. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 52:P159–P166, 1997
 
Teri L, Gibbons LE, McCurry SM, et al: Exercise plus behavioral management in patients with Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:2015-2022, 2003
 
Teri L, McCurry SM, Logsdon RG, et al: Training community consultants to help family members improve dementia care: a randomized controlled trial. Gerontologist 45:802–811, 2005a
 
Teri L, McKenzie G, LaFazia D: Psychosocial treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 12:303–316, 2005b
 
Thompson LW, Gallagher D: Efficacy of psychotherapy in the treatment of late-life depression. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 6:127–139, 1984
 
Thompson LW, Gallagher D, Breckenridge JS: Comparative effectiveness of psychotherapies for depressed elders. J Consult Clin Psychol 55:385–390, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Thompson LW, Gallagher D, Czirr R: Personality disorder and outcome in the treatment of late-life depression. J Geriatr Psychiatry 21:133–146, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Thompson LW, Coon DW, Gallagher-Thompson D, et al: Comparison of desipramine and cognitive/behavioral therapy in the treatment of elderly outpatients with mild-to-moderate depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 9:225–240, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Torgersen S, Kringlen E, Cramer V: The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58: 590–596, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Toseland RW, Diehl M, Freeman K, et al: The impact of validation group therapy on nursing home residents with dementia. J Appl Gerontol 16:31–50, 1997
 
Tyrer P, Seivewright H, Johnson T: The core elements of neurosis: mixed anxiety–depression (cothymia) and personality disorder. J Personal Disord 17:129–138, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Unützer J, Simon G, Belin TR, et al: Care for depression in HMO patients aged 65 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:871–878, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Unützer JM, Katon WM, Williams JWJ, et al: Improving primary care for depression in late life: the design of a multicenter randomized trial. Med Care 39:785–799, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Unützer JM, Katon W, Callahan CM, et al: Collaborative care management of late-life depression in the primary care setting: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 228:2836–2845, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Wang PS, Berglund P, Olfson M, et al: Failure and delay in initial treatment contact after first onset of mental disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:629–640, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Weissman MM, Myers JK, Thompson WD: Depression and its treatment in a U.S. urban community—1975–1976. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:417–421, 1981
[PubMed]
 
Wetherell JL, Gatz M, Craske MG: Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. J Consult Clin Psychol 71:31–40, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Wetherell JL, Hopko DR, Diefenbach GJ, et al: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life generalized anxiety disorder: who gets better? Behav Ther 36:147-156, 2005
 
Williams JW Jr, Barrett J, Oxman T, et al: Treatment of dysthymia and minor depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial in older adults. JAMA 284:1519–1526, 2000
[PubMed]
 
+

CME Activity

Add a subscription to complete this activity and earn CME credit.
Sample questions:
1.
In the first known randomized trial examining cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as a medication augmentation therapy, more than 100 depressed older adults were assigned to three treatment approaches: CBT alone, medication alone, or combined CBT and medication. What were the major findings?
2.
Which of the following is a manualized treatment focused on four components (grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits) that are hypothesized to lead to or maintain depression?
3.
Investigators have studied the effects of exercise on depression in older adults. In one study, supervised exercise therapy, medication alone, and combined exercise and medication were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in treating depression in older adults. What was one of the results of this study?
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 37.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 17.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 24.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 26.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 19.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation