Diagnosis and Classification: Introduction | Mood Disorders | Schizophrenia and Other Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders | Anxiety Disorders | Somatoform Disorders | Personality Disorders | Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders | Child and Adolescent Disorders | FDA Approval of Symptom Reduction Strategies | DSM-V and Pharmacogenetics | Summary | Bibliography
Since the late 1970s, psychiatry has paid greater
attention to rigorous diagnosis and classification, as evidenced
by the 1980 publication of the then forward-thinking DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association 1980). Unlike earlier editions, DSM-III
provided detailed diagnostic criteria and descriptive diagnoses.
Subsequent editions, including DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association 1987) and DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association 1994) (the text revision of which, DSM-IV-TR,
was published in 2000; American Psychiatric Association 2000),
refined these diagnostic criteria and made changes primarily on the
basis of new empirical data and the results of field trials. Much
of the attention to more rigorous nosology had been sparked by advances
in the biology and treatment of various psychiatric disorders, making
precise diagnosis ever more important. For example, the response
to lithium carbonate of many patients diagnosed as having bipolar (manic-depressive)
illness fostered diligent efforts to discriminate between manic-depressive
illness and schizophrenia, which resulted in a change of diagnosis
for many patients and alterations in their treatment.