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Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Addiction

Judith S. Brook, Ed.D.; Kerstin Pahl, Ph.D.; Elizabeth Rubenstone, B.A.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623440.344608

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Excerpt

Addiction has been defined as "a chronic relapsing disease characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain" (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2002). It is generally understood as a disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental underpinnings, all of which influence its development and the way in which it expresses itself in the individual. In this chapter, we examine both substance abuse and dependence, which together are referred to as substance use disorders, as delineated in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000).

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TABLE 3–1. Past-year prevalence of substance use disorders
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TABLE 3–2. Lifetime prevalence of daily tobacco use as related to respiratory ailments, neurobehavioral and cognitive problems, and general malaise
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Drug abuse and dependence are multidetermined by genetic predispositions, personality attributes, and social-environmental influences. Anyone involved in the treatment of substance use disorders must take into consideration this complex matrix of influences.

Despite the differences in prevalence rates of drug abuse and dependence among ethnic groups, the risk factors for drug abuse and dependence are quite similar among various ethnic groups.

Many individuals have comorbid psychiatric disorders (e.g., substance dependence and major depressive disorder). Further research into the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders may illuminate some of the etiological pathways for each disorder. From a treatment perspective, it is necessary to treat the drug dependence as well as the comorbid disorders.

There seem to be genetic influences on the overall vulnerability to substance abuse and dependence. Future research into the interplay of genetic and environmental factors related to drug dependence is clearly warranted.

In trying to understand the development of substance use disorders, it is of crucial importance to use a life-course approach. New statistical methods, such as growth-mixture modeling, have enabled us to identify prototypical trajectories of drug use behavior over time. Future research will continue to reveal the antecedents, co-occurring developmental processes, and consequences of these distinct substance use patterns.

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Which of the following DSM-IV-TR clinical criteria does not apply to a diagnosis of substance abuse?
2.
Several epidemiological studies on substance abuse have been conducted in recent years. One of the most important of these was the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. Which of the following statements is true of this study?
3.
The patterns of abuse and dependence for different classes of drugs have been found to differ in epidemiological studies. According to the Wagner and Anthony (2002) study, which of the following is true?
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 36.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 2.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 4.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
Neuropsychosocial profiles of current and future adolescent alcohol misusers. Nature 2014;512(7513):185-9.doi:10.1038/nature13402.
The prevalence, intensity, and assessment of craving for MDMA/ecstasy in recreational users. J Psychoactive Drugs 2014 Apr-Jun;46(2):154-61.doi:10.1080/02791072.2014.901586.
 
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