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Chapter 31. Cognitive Therapy

Jesse H. Wright, M.D., Ph.D.; Michael E. Thase, M.D.; Aaron T. Beck, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623402.313094

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Excerpt

Cognitive therapy (CT) is a system of psychotherapy based on theories of pathological information processing in mental disorders. Treatment is directed primarily at modifying distorted or maladaptive cognitions and related behavioral dysfunction. Therapeutic interventions are usually focused and problem oriented. Although the use of specific techniques is a major feature of this approach, there can be considerable flexibility and creativity in the clinical application of CT.

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FIGURE 31–1. A working model for cognitive therapy.Source. Adapted from Wright 1988.

FIGURE 31–2. Case conceptualization flow chart.Source. Reprinted from Wright JH, Basco MR, Thase ME: Learning Cognitive-Behavior Therapy: An Illustrated Guide (Core Competencies in Psychotherapy Series, Glen O. Gabbard, series ed.). Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2006, p. 51. Copyright 2006, American Psychiatric Publishing. Used with permission.

FIGURE 31–3. Mr. W's coping card.This example shows how Mr. W, a middle-aged man with bipolar disorder, developed an effective coping strategy for managing anger in situations with his girlfriend.Source.Wright et al. 2006
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TABLE 31–1. Criteria for a system of psychotherapy
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TABLE 31–2. Cognitive errors
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TABLE 31–3. Adaptive and maladaptive schemas
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TABLE 31–4. Pathological information processing in depression and anxiety disorders
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TABLE 31–5. Methods of enhancing collaborative empiricism
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TABLE 31–6. Key elements of cognitive therapy case conceptualization
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TABLE 31–7. Structuring procedures for cognitive therapy
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TABLE 31–8. Psychoeducational materials and programs for cognitive therapy
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TABLE 31–9. Methods for identifying and modifying automatic thoughts
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TABLE 31–10. Two-column thought recording
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TABLE 31–11. Thought Change Record—an example
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TABLE 31–12. Methods for identifying and modifying schemas
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TABLE 31–13. Schema modification through examining the evidence
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TABLE 31–14. Schema modification through listing advantages and disadvantages
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TABLE 31–15. Schema modification through generating alternatives
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TABLE 31–16. Behavioral procedures used in cognitive therapy
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TABLE 31–17. Modifications of cognitive therapy for personality disorders
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Studies of information processing in mental disorders have found characteristic patterns of cognitions that are linked with dysphoric emotions and maladaptive behavior.

Treatment with cognitive therapy involves modification of dysfunctional cognitions and associated behaviors.

Cognitive therapy is an active treatment characterized by a highly collaborative therapeutic relationship.

Structure, psychoeducation, and homework are important components of treatment.

Cognitive therapists help patients identify and change automatic thoughts and core beliefs (schemas).

Behavioral methods are used to reverse helplessness, anhedonia, avoidance, and other core symptoms of mental disorders.

Cognitive therapy has been extensively researched. There is strong empirical support for the efficacy of this treatment approach.

Cognitive therapy methods have been developed for many conditions including mood and anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders, substance abuse, and personality disorders.

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Cognitive therapy stresses the importance of schemas (cognitive templates) that determine how we perceive, assimilate, and act on information from the environment. Which of the following statements concerning schemas is false?
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An important construct in cognitive therapy for depression is the "negative cognitive triad" of thought patterns about the self, the world, and the future. Clinically, these cognitions are important in assessing safety risk. Which of the following cognitive elements has been shown to be highly associated with suicide risk?
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Comparisons of depressed and anxious patients have revealed differences between the two groups as well as common features of the disorders. Which of the following cognitive responses to environmental stimuli has been found to be more characteristic of anxious patients than of depressed patients?
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