0
0

Chapter 21. Headaches

Morris Levin, M.D.; Thomas N. Ward, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585624201.680643

Sections

Excerpt

Posttraumatic headache (PTH) affects millions of people annually. It is the most common presenting complaint of the postconcussion syndrome (see Chapter 15, Mild Brain Injury). PTH is defined as a new headache beginning after head or neck (and, presumably, brain) injury. Headache associated with brain injury usually is short-lived but may persist for months to years after the event. Acute PTH generally resolves within weeks. Here the important goals involve diagnosis of any treatable cerebral and/or neck pathology, including cervical spine fracture and intracranial hemorrhage. When PTH persists beyond 3 months, it is termed chronic PTH, and pain management and psychosocial issues become paramount. In this chapter we summarize important features of PTH disorders, including diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
Table 21–1. International Headache Society criteria for posttraumatic headache
Table Reference Number
Table 21–2. International Headache Society criteria for episodic tension-type headache
Table Reference Number
Table 21–3. International Headache Society criteria for migraine headache
Table Reference Number
Table 21–4. Secondary ("threatening") causes of acute posttraumatic headache
Table Reference Number
Table 21–5. Traumatic causes of persistent headaches
Table Reference Number
Table 21–6. Symptoms of postconcussion syndrome
Table Reference Number
Table 21–7. Therapeutic opportunities and constraints in posttraumatic headache

References

Alberti A, Sarchielli P, Mazzotta G, et al: Event-related potentials in posttraumatic headache. Headache 41:579–585, 2001
[PubMed]
 
American Academy of Neurology: Assessment of brain SPECT: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 46:278–285, 1996
 
Anthony M: The role of the occipital nerve in unilateral headache, in Current Problems in Neurology: Advances in Headache Research. Edited by Rose FC. London, John Libbey, 1987, pp 257–262
 
Berglund, A, Alfredsson L, Jensen I, et al: The association between exposure to rear-end collision and future health complaints. J Clin Epidemiol 54:851–856, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Blumbergs PC, Jones NR, North JB: Diffuse axonal injury in head trauma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52:838–841, 1989
[PubMed]
 
Dencker SJ, Lofving BA: A psychometric study of identical twins discordant for closed head injury. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 122(suppl):119–126, 1958
 
Gennarelli TA: Mechanisms of brain injury. J Emerg Med 1:5–11, 1993
 
Gfeller JD, Chibnall JT, Duckro PN: Postconcussion symptoms and cognitive functioning in posttraumatic headache patients. Headache 34:503–507, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Gutkelch AN: Posttraumatic amnesia, post-concussional symptoms and accident. Eur Neurol 19:91–102, 1980
 
Ham LP, Packard RC: A retrospective follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in patients with post-traumatic headache. Biofeedback Self Regul 21:93–104, 1996
[PubMed]
 
International Headache Society, Headache Classification Subcommittee: The international classification of headache disorders, 2nd Edition. Cephalalgia 24 (suppl 1):9–160, 2004
 
Junger EC, Newell DW, Grant GA, et al: Cerebral autoregulation following minor head injury. J Neurosurg 86:425–432, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Kirk C, Nagiub G, Abu-Arafeh I: Chronic post-traumatic headache after head injury in children and adolescents. Dev Med Child Neurol 50:422–425, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Cady R, et al: Sumatriptan for the range of headaches in migraine sufferers: results of the Spectrum Study. Headache 40:783–791, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Machado EB, Michet CJ, Ballard DJ, et al: Trends in incidence and clinical presentation of temporal arteritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1958–1985. Arthritis Rheum 31:745–749, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Mathew NT, Ravishankar K, Sanin LC: Coexistence of migraine and idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema. Neurology 46:1226–1230, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Mathew NT, Kailasam J, Meadors L, et al: Intravenous valproate sodium (Depacon) aborts migraine rapidly: a preliminary report (abstract). Cephalalgia 19:373, 1999
 
McBeath JG, Nanda A: Roller coaster migraine: an underreported injury? Headache 40:745–747, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Moskowitz MA: Neurogenic versus vascular mechanisms of sumatriptan and ergot alkaloids in migraine. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:307–311, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Obelieniene, D, Bovim, G, Schrader, H, et al: Headache after whiplash: a historical cohort study outside the medicolegal context. Cephalalgia 18:559–564, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Packard RC: Posttraumatic headache. Semin Neurol 14:40–45, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Packard RC, Ham LP: Posttraumatic headache: determining chronicity. Headache 33:133–134, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Packard RC, Ham LP: Pathogenesis of posttraumatic headaches and migraine: a common headache pathway? Headache 37:142–152, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Pikus HJ, Phillips JM: Outcome of surgical decompression of the second cervical root for cervicogenic headache. Neurosurgery 39:63–71, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Post RM, Silberstein SD: Shared mechanisms in affective illness, epilepsy, and migraine. Neurology 44:S37–S47, 1994
 
Radanov BP, Di Stefano G, Augustiny KF: Symptomatic approach to posttraumatic headache and its possible implications for treatment. Eur Spine J 10:403–407, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Raskin NH: Repetitive intravenous dihydroergotamine as therapy for intractable migraine. Neurology 36:995–997, 1986
[PubMed]
 
Rimel RW, Giordani B, Barth JT: Disability caused by minor head injury. Neurosurgery 9:221–228, 1981
[PubMed]
 
Rutherford WH, Merrett JD, McDonald JR: Symptoms of one year following concussion from minor head trauma. Injury 10:225–230, 1978
 
Takagi K, Bölke E, Peiper M, et al: Chronic headache after cranio-cervical trauma: hypothetical pathomechanism based upon neuroanatomical considerations. Eur J Med Res 12:249–254, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Taylor AB, Bell TK: Slowing of cerebral circulation after concussional head injury: a controlled trial. Lancet 2:178–180, 1996
 
Ward TN: Management of an acute primary headache. Clin Neurosci 5:50–54, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Ward TN: Providing relief from headache pain: current options for acute and prophylactic therapy. Postgrad Med 108:121–127, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Ward TN, Levin M, Phillips JM: Evaluation and management of headache in the emergency department. Med Clin North Am 85:971–985, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Warner JS, Fenichel GM: Chronic post-traumatic headache often a myth? Neurology 46:915–916, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Young WB, Packard RC, Katsarava Z: Headaches associated with head trauma, in Wolff's Headache and Other Head Pain, 8th Edition. Edited by Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dodick DW. New York, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp 451–472
 
Zubkov AY, Pilkington AS, Bernanke DH, et al: Posttraumatic cerebral vasospasm: clinical and morphological presentations. J Neurotrauma 16:763–770, 1999
[PubMed]
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 2.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 4.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 5.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 7.  >
Textbook of Traumatic Brain Injury, 2nd Edition > Chapter 12.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
Chronic post-traumatic headache: clinical findings and possible mechanisms. J Man Manip Ther 2014;22(1):36-44.doi:10.1179/2042618613Y.0000000053.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation