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Chapter 45. Gender Identity Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Adults

Kenneth J. Zucker, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585622986.261477

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Since its introduction to the psychiatric nomenclature in DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association 1980), the study of gender identity disorder (GID) in children, adolescents, and adults has advanced on several fronts: 1) its phenomenology has been well described; 2) the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established with reasonable success; 3) associated features have been identified; 4) follow-up studies have tracked its natural history; and 5) various etiological hypotheses have been examined (for reviews, see Cohen-Kettenis and Gooren 1999; Cohen-Kettenis and Pfäfflin 2003; Zucker 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006a; Zucker and Bradley 1995).

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