Editors

Marc Galanter, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry; Director of the Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Herbert D. Kleber, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Substance Abuse, Columbia University, New York, New York

Contributors

Sudie E. Back, Ph.D.
Assistanct Professor, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina

Monica Barros, M.D.
Chief Resident, Department of Psychiatry, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC

Steven L. Batki, M.D.
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco; Director, Addiction Psychiatry Research Program, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California

Adam Bisaga, M.D.
Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons; Research Psychiatrist, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York

J. Wesley Boyd, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Director, Physician Health Services, Massachusetts Medical Society; Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Staff Psychiatrist, Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Kathleen T. Brady, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina

David W. Brook, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Judith S. Brook, Ed.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Kirk J. Brower, M.D.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry; Executive Director, University of Michigan Addiction Treatment Services, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Robert Paul Cabaj, M.D.
Director, San Francisco Department of Public Health Community Behavioral Health Services; Associate Clinical Professor in Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California

Kathleen M. Carroll, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Division of Substance Abuse, Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, Connecticut

Crystal A. Caudill, M.P.H.
Director, Wedco District Health Department, Cynthiana, Kentucky

Harvey L. Causey III, M.D.
Medical Director, Morris Village Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center, South Carolina Department of Mental Health; Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina

Domenic A. Ciraulo, M.D.
Professor and Chairman, Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

Richard R. Clayton, Ph.D.
Associate Dean for Research, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E.
Director, Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland

Gerard J. Connors, Ph.D.
Director, Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York

George De Leon, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist, Center for Therapeutic Community Research, National Development and Research Institutes Inc.; Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Richard Denisco, M.D., M.P.H.
Medical Officer, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, Maryland

Daniel Dickerson, D.O., M.P.H.
Associate Physician, University of California, Los Angeles; Addiction Psychiatrist, United American Indian Involvement, Inc., Los Angeles, California

Carlo C. DiClemente, Ph.D. A.B.P.P.
Professor of Psychology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland

Robert L. DuPont, M.D.
President, Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Nady el-Guebaly, M.D., D.Psych., D.P.H.
Professor and Head, Division of Addiction Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary; Medical Director, Addictions Program and Centre, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Canada

William Fals-Stewart, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York

Loretta P. Finnegan, M.D.
President, Finnegan Consulting, LLC., Avalon, New Jersey; Medical Advisor for the Director (Retired), Office of Research on Women's Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Richard J. Frances, M.D.
Director of Professional and Public Education, Silver Hill Hospital, New Canaan, Connecticut; Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, New York University, New York, New York; Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey

Marc Galanter, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry; Director of the Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Miranda Garay, B.A.
Psychology Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland

Tracie J. Gardner, Ph.D.
Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas

David R. Gastfriend, M.D.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Joel Gelernter, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Genetics, and Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine; VA Connecticut Healthcare Center, West Haven, Connecticut

Leigh Gemmell, Ph.D.
Health Services Research and Development Postdoctoral Fellow, Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Tony P. George, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology, University Chair in Addiction Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry; Head, Addiction Psychiatry Program, University of Toronto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario

Richard A. Glennon, Ph.D.
Professor and Chair, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia

Shelly F. Greenfield, M.D., M.P.H.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Associate Clinical Director, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts

Erik W. Gunderson, M.D.
Medical Director, Buprenorphine Program and Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine (in Psychiatry); Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York

Margaret Haney, Ph.D.
Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University; Division on Substance Abuse, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York

Grace Hennessy, M.D.
Director, Substance Abuse Recovery Program, VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York, New York

Stephen T. Higgins, Ph.D.
Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

Rocco A. Iannucci, M.D.
Medical Director, McGee Unit of the Berkshire Recovery Center; Psychiatrist, The Brien Center for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Berkshire Health Systems, Pittsfield, Massachusetts

Yifrah Kaminer, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry and Co-Director of Research, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut

Kyle M. Kampman, M.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Stephen R. Kandall, M.D.
Professor of Pediatrics (Retired), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York

Herbert D. Kleber, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Substance Abuse, Columbia University, New York, New York

Clifford M. Knapp, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts

John R. Knight, M.D.
Associate Director, Physician Health Services, Massachusetts Medical Society; Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Director, Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse Research, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts

George F. Koob, Ph.D.
Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California

Thomas R. Kosten, M.D.
Jay H. Waggoner Chair and Professor of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine; Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas

Henry R. Kranzler, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry and Associate Scientific Director, Alcohol Research Center, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut

Mary Jeanne Kreek, M.D.
Patrick E. and Beatrice M. Haggerty Professor, Head of the Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York

Frances R. Levin, M.D.
Kennedy-Leavy Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York

Petros Levounis, M.D.
Director, The Addiction Institute of New York; Chief, Division of Addiction Psychiatry, and Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York

Hallie A. Lightdale, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC

Walter Ling, M.D.
Professor-in-Residence and Director, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Los Angeles, California

Michelle R. Lofwall, M.D.
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky

A. Thomas McLellan, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer, Treatment Research Institute; Professor in Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Avram H. Mack, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC

David Mee-Lee, M.D.
Chief Editor, American Society of Addiction Medicine Patient Placement Criteria, Second Edition-Revised; DML Training and Consulting, Davis, California

Rudolf H. Moos, Ph.D.
Senior Research Career Scientist, Center for Health Care Evaluation and Department of VA Health Care System, Menlo Park, California; Professor, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

Hugh Myrick, M.D.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina and Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, South Carolina

Edgar P. Nace, M.D.
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School; Medical Director, Turtle Creek Manor, Dallas, Texas

Kalpana I. Nathan, M.D.
Medical Director, New Horizons, Department of Psychiatry, Palo Alto VA Health Care System, Menlo Park, California

Charles O'Brien, M.D., Ph.D.
Kenneth E. Appel Professor and Vice-Chair of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania and Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Timothy J. O'Farrell, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology, Families and Addiction Program, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton, Massachusetts

Kerstin Pahl, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Soteri Polydorou, M.D.
Postdoctoral Fellow, Division of Substance Abuse; Assistant in Clinical Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and New York States Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York

Harrison G. Pope Jr., M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Director, Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts

Jennifer Sharpe Potter, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Instructor in Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Research Director, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts

Richard A. Rawson, Ph.D.
Professor-in-Residence and Associate Director, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, Los Angeles, California

Richard K. Ries, M.D.
Professor and Director of Addictions Division, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington

Jonathan I. Ritvo, M.D.
Medical Director, Center for Dependency Addiction and Rehabilitation (CeDAR), University of Colorado Hospital; Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado

Stephen Ross, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry; Associate Director for Addiction Education, New York University School of Medicine; Director, Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, Bellevue Hospital, New York, New York

Elizabeth Rubenstone, B.A.
Assistant Research Scientist, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York

Sidney H. Schnoll, M.D., Ph.D.
Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine and Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia

Richard S. Schottenfeld, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Melissa J.H. Segress, M.S.
Managing Director, Training Resource Center, University of Kentucky College of Social Work, Lexington, Kentucky

Carl M. Selavka, Ph.D.
Forensic Analytical Chemist, Northeastern Bioscience Associates, LLC., Charlton, Massachusetts

Kenneth Silverman, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Mehmet Sofuoglu, M.D., Ph.D.
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, Connecticut

Eric C. Strain, M.D.
Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Christine Timko, Ph.D.
Research Career Scientist, Center for Health Care Evaluation and Department of VA Health Care System, Menlo Park, California; Consulting Professor, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

J. Scott Tonigan, Ph.D.
Associate Research Professor, Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Michael F. Weaver, M.D.
Associate Professor of Internal Medicine and Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia

Andrea H. Weinberger, Ph.D.
Associate Research Scientist, Division of Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Roger D. Weiss, M.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Clinical Director, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts

Joseph Westermeyer, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota

Tara Wright, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina and Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, South Carolina

Disclosure of Competing Interests

The following contributors have declared all forms of support received within the 12 months prior to manuscript submittal that may represent a competing interest in relation to their work published in this volume, as follows:

Kathleen T. Brady, M.D., Ph.D.Consultant: Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Abbott, GlaxoSmithKline, Forest Laboratories, Ovation; Speaker's bureau: Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Abbott, GlaxoSmithKline, Forest Laboratories; Grant support: Abbott, GlaxoSmithKline, Wyeth-Ayerst, Forest Laboratories.

Kathleen Carroll, Ph.D.Member: Applied Behavioral Research, LLC. This organization provides training and develops training materials for a variety of empirically supported therapies, including cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Domenic A. Ciraulo, M.D.Consultant: Alkermes; Clinical trial contract: UCB Pharma.

Richard Frances, M.D.Speaker: Cephalon, Alkermes, Forest Laboratories; Stock: sanofi-aventis, Pfizer.

David R. Gastfriend, M.D.—Full-time employee of Alkermes, Inc. and principal of RecoverySearch, Inc.

Tony P. George, M.D.Grant support: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Health, NARSAD, Targacept, Sepracor; Consultant: Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline.

Herbert D. Kleber, M.D.Consultant: Reckitt Benckiser.

Petros Levounis, M.D.Speaker's bureau: AstraZeneca, Forest, Cephalon, Takeda.

Hugh Myrick, M.D.Grant support: Abbott, Forest, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hythiam; Speaker: Abbott, Forest, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cephalon.

Charles O'Brien, M.D., Ph.D.Grant support: National Institute on Drug Abuse, VA Medical Research Service; Consultant: Alkermes Corporation.

Kyle M. Kampman, M.D.Grant support: National Institute on Drug Abuse, VA Medical Research Service; Speaker's bureau: Cephalon, Reckitt Benckiser.

Richard Rawson, Ph.D.—Consulting agreement with Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners to advise them on methamphetamine treatment issues. They are considering development of Vigabatrin.

Richard K. Ries, M.D.Grant support: National Institute of Health, SAMHSA/CSAT; Consultant/advisor/speaker's bureau: Forest, Eli Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Pfizer, Janssen, AstraZeneca.

Stephen Ross, M.D.Speaker's bureau: Forest Pharmaceuticals, Cephalon.

Eric Strain, M.D.Consultant/travel support: Alkermes, GlaxoSmithKline, Pinney Associates, Reckitt Benckiser, Schering Plough, Shire, Titan, The Oak Group.

Andrea H. Weinberger, Ph.D.Grant support: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institute of Health, Sepracor.

Roger D. Weiss, M.D.Board of advisors: Alkermes; Speaker's bureau: Abbott.

The following contributors stated that they had no competing interests during the year preceding manuscript submission:

Sudie E. Back, Ph.D.
Monica Barros, M.D.
Steven L. Batki, M.D.
Adam Bisaga, M.D.
J. Wesley Boyd, M.D., Ph.D.
David W. Brook, M.D.
Judith S. Brook, Ed.D.
Kirk J. Brower, M.D.
Robert Paul Cabaj, M.D.
Crystal A. Caudill, M.P.H.
Harvey L. Causey III, M.D.
Richard R. Clayton, Ph.D.
Wilson M. Compton, M.D., M.P.E.
Gerard J. Connors, Ph.D.
George De Leon, Ph.D.
Richard Denisco, M.D., M.P.H.
Daniel Dickerson, D.O., M.P.H.
Carlo C. DiClemente, Ph.D., A.B.P.P.
Robert L. DuPont, M.D.
Nady el-Guebaly, M.D.
William Fals-Stewart, Ph.D.
Loretta P. Finnegan, M.D.
Marc Galanter, M.D.
Miranda Garay, B.A.
Tracie J. Gardner, Ph.D.
Joel Gelernter, M.D.
Leigh Gemmell, Ph.D.
Richard A. Glennon, Ph.D.
Shelly F. Greenfield, M.D., M.P.H.
Eric W. Gunderson, M.D.
Margaret Haney, Ph.D.
Grace Hennessy, M.D.
Stephen T. Higgins, Ph.D.
Rocco A. Iannucci, M.D.
Yifrah Kaminer, M.D.
Stephen R. Kandall, M.D.
Clifford M. Knapp, Ph.D.
John R. Knight, M.D.
George F. Koob, Ph.D.
Thomas R. Kosten, M.D.
Henry R. Kranzler, M.D.
Mary Jeanne Kreek, M.D.
Frances R. Levin, M.D.
Walter Ling, M.D.
Michelle R. Lofwall, M.D.
Avram H. Mack, M.D.
A. Thomas McLellan, Ph.D.
David Mee-Lee, M.D.
Rudolf H. Moos, Ph.D.
Edgar P. Nace, M.D.
Kalpana I. Nathan, M.D.
Timothy J. O'Farrell, Ph.D.
Soteri Polydorou, M.D.
Harrison G. Pope Jr., M.D.
Jonathan I. Ritvo, M.D.
Jennifer Sharpe Potter, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Elizabeth Rubenstone, B.A.
Sidney H. Schnoll, M.D., Ph.D.
Richard S. Schottenfeld, M.D.
Melissa J.H. Segress, M.S.
Carl M. Selavka, Ph.D.
Kenneth Silverman, Ph.D.
Mehmet Sofuoglu, M.D., Ph.D.
Christine Timko, Ph.D.
J. Scott Tonigan, Ph.D.
Michael F. Weaver, M.D.
Joseph Westermeyer, M.D., Ph.D.
Tara Wright, M.D